01 de febrero de 2020

Condylostylus in Ontario

These shiny little green flies are super common and easy to see on sunny leaves. They're a chore to identify though...

Relevant project: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/condylostylus-of-north-america

Similar genera: https://bugguide.net/node/view/12491
Key down to groups here: https://bugguide.net/node/view/42317

C. patibulatus easily identifiable by large size, patterned wings, all black legs. Common.
https://bugguide.net/node/view/478773
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14106503

caudatus group very common - small, short antennae, yellow on legs, unmarked wings
https://bugguide.net/node/view/479965
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/21520002
Females not identifiable to species: https://bugguide.net/node/view/1775592/bgimage
Species in or near Ontario on BugGuide:
- calcaratus - https://bugguide.net/node/view/663189,
- caudatus - https://bugguide.net/node/view/481453, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1266165
- connectans? - https://bugguide.net/node/view/1148864/bgimage
- nigrofemoratus - https://bugguide.net/node/view/482799, https://bugguide.net/node/view/445919/bgimage
- flavipes - https://bugguide.net/node/view/585233/bgimage, https://bugguide.net/node/view/657692/bgimage
- inermis - https://bugguide.net/node/view/857632

sipho group large size, patterned wings, yellow legs?
https://bugguide.net/node/view/479158, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1706755/bgimage
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14103845
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14116677
- sipho - https://bugguide.net/node/view/478973, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9476574
- scaber - https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19408451
- other species not in Ontario?

comatus group - small?, long antennae
https://bugguide.net/node/view/479967
- comatus - https://bugguide.net/node/view/476349, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1309290/bgimage, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1225887/bgimage
- other 2 species not in Ontario?

brimleyi, albicoxa, viridicoxa in Ohio on GBIF? https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/taxonomy?has_coordinate=true&has_geospatial_issue=false&taxon_key=1610262&geometry=POLYGON((-90.60724%2039.67862,-62.45028%2039.67862,-62.45028%2050.92862,-90.60724%2050.92862,-90.60724%2039.67862))

Ingresado el 01 de febrero de 2020 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 1 comentarios | Deja un comentario

11 de enero de 2020

2020

I joined iNaturalist in 2017. I still have a lot of stuff from 2019 to post but it's definitely been a great year! Highlights were a trip to Algonquin Park in February and a trip to Florida in December. From my stats I got more species in 2017 thanks to a summer job but I had a lot of cool experiences in 2019, and maybe 2019 will catch up with the backlog. I also passed 3000 observations and 1000 species last year!
https://www.inaturalist.org/stats/2017/upupa-epops
https://www.inaturalist.org/stats/2018/upupa-epops
https://www.inaturalist.org/stats/2019/upupa-epops

Target species:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=123104&subview=grid&unobserved_by_user_id=upupa-epops&view=species&without_taxon_id=3

Right now I'm especially interested in getting more into plants and underwater animals.

My photos on eBird: https://ebird.org/media/canada/catalog?mediaType=p&sort=obs_date_desc&searchField=user&userId=USER350975

Thank you to everyone for such a great community!

Ingresado el 11 de enero de 2020 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

19 de diciembre de 2019

Identifying Allograpta in North America

Allograpta is a genus of hover flies with 2 species common in the US. At first glance they look pretty similar but I think after learning how to distinguish them they’re relatively easy from most observations. And there are a lot of observations of them as they’re very common.

The species are Allograpta obliqua and A. exotica. A. obliqua is common pretty much everywhere in North America, while A. exotica is common mostly in the southern half of the US (I think both are common in Central and South America, but there are lots of other Allograpta species there). Florida also has the very distinctive Allograpta radiata. The most similar genera to Allograpta in North America are Fazia, Sphaerophoria, and Toxomerus.

The most reliable feature to separate the 2 common Allograpta species is a section of the thorax called the katepimeron. In A. obliqua it is white, while in A. exotica it is black. It’s located about halfway between the base of the wings and the base of the middle and hind legs. It's marked with arrows in this image: https://bugguide.net/node/view/757809 (note that the face stripe mentioned there is not reliable for separating them).
Here are photos of each species as well to compare:
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1107106
https://bugguide.net/node/view/642078

Unfortunately most observations don’t show the katepimeron, but they almost always show the abdomen pattern. There are some features there that can generally be used to separate the species (copied from here):

1. 2 narrow yellow bands/triangles near the base of tergite 2 (basically the very base of the abdomen) narrowing out towards the centre (present in obliqua, absent in exotica so that the base of T2 is all black).

2. Narrow yellow band along the entire base of tergite 4 (obliqua has it, exotica does not).

3. The “leaf-shaped” spots on the side of tergite 4 are usually closer to parallel to the centre pair of stripes, whereas in exotica they are usually closer to 45* or more away from them (exotica also has these spots connected to the centre pair of stripes like this more often, but both can have that).

4. obliqua seems to often have more orangey-yellow stripes, whereas exotica often has more creamy or whiter yellow stripes.

That probably sounds complicated, but once you get an idea of what it looks like it’s not that bad. Just try to make sure most of those features are in alignment. The first image is a pretty clear A. obliqua, while the second one is a pretty clear A. exotica:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/3512518

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19368438
They are variable and there are some that are intermediate, but I think most are identifiable. You can get an idea of the variation possible within each species by looking through their image galleries:
Allograpta obliqua
Allograpta exotica

If you’re interested in helping identify these, here is a filter for all Needs ID observations of the genus in Canada and the US: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/identify?taxon_id=118969&place_id=1%2C6712
If you want clarification on anything, please don’t hesitate to ask here or tag me in an observation. Feel free to skip over any that you’re not sure about. Please also let me know if I should correct anything here.

(copied for the most part from this forum post)

Ingresado el 19 de diciembre de 2019 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

23 de octubre de 2019

Cool "Fly Death Fungus" Video

This video was just posted the other day by a neat Youtube channel I subscribe to and I thought it was really interesting. I've seen the fungus several times and I've also seen a number of fly observations on iNaturalist where it was present unknown to the observer.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C2Jw5ib-s_I

Species photo gallery:
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/339550/browse_photos
My observations:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?taxon_id=339550&user_id=upupa-epops

Ingresado el 23 de octubre de 2019 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

05 de octubre de 2019

Identifying Syrphus Hover Flies of North America

Work in progress
- Before trying to identify a Syrphus to species, make sure it is not a similar genus such as Eupeodes, Epistrophe, Parasyrphus, Megasyrphus, Meliscaeva, etc. (easier said than done)
- Currently only suitable for identifying northeastern species.

S. torvus
- Hairy eyes, black frons
- Female hind femur 3/4 black from base
- Male?
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1371184/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1449626/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/910105/bgimage

S. ribesii
- Frons black
- Female femora all yellow
- Male hind femur 3/4 black from base
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1302736/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1060367/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/982474/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1021446
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/32790751

S. vitripennis
- Yellow bands meet abdomen margin narrowly
- Female hind femur 1/3 or 3/4 black from base
- Male not separable from S. rectus
https://bugguide.net/node/view/876186/bgpage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1655754/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1596113/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1505795/bgimage
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/33738216

S. knabi
- Yellow bands meet abdomen margin broadly, bands mostly straight
- Female hind femur yellow except black band near end, metabasitarsus (base of hind foot) is orange/yellow rather than dark
- Male?
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1542944/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1405860/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/31751/bgimage
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/17376379
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1493264/bgimage, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1328499/bgimage

Female S. knabi, from https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/17376379

S. rectus
- Yellow bands narrow toward abdomen margin
- Female hind femur yellow, *usually* dark ring between the middle and the end; metabasitarsus (base of hind foot) is dark
- Male hind femur 2/3 to 3/4 black from base
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7413694
https://bugguide.net/node/view/912947/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/474223/bgimage

Female S. rectus, from https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7413694

S. opinator
- Black abdomen margin (separation from Eupeodes?)
- Only western North America
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1614867/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/169722/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1029234/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/792916
Lots of sad unresolved conversations: https://bugguide.net/node/view/241862/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/268287/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/264398

S. sexmaculatus
- Has six spots on abdomen instead of 2 bands and 2 spots (the normal 2 yellow bands are split up)
- Northern forest/tundra and western subalpine habitat
- Photo?

S. attenuatus
- Has six spots on abdomen instead of 2 bands and 2 spots
- Yellow abdomen margin
- Northern forest/tundra and western subalpine habitat
- Photo?

S. currani?
S. dimidiatus?
S. doesburgi?
S. intricatus?
S. monoculus?
S. sonorensis?

Sources
- BugGuide
- Field Guide to the Flower Flies of Northeastern North America
- https://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/mylmst_23/mylmst_23_537.HTM
- http://esc-sec.ca/wp/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/AAFC_insects_and_arachnids_part_18.pdf#page=364

Ingresado el 05 de octubre de 2019 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

14 de septiembre de 2019

Some Syrphinae Larvae of North America

Hopefully a collection of confirmed larva of Syrphinae (Bacchini, Syrphini, and Toxomerus; most of which consume aphids and similar plant pests as larva). The only official resource I know of is this old publication (Heiss 1938): https://archive.org/details/classificationof16heis/page/n11
There is also this BugGuide page: https://bugguide.net/node/view/95040

If you have found a hover fly larva and are interested in contributing to our knowledge of them, please consider raising it to discover what the adult turns out to be. Some advice here: https://bugguide.net/node/view/417958
There is also a facebook group here that you might be able to ask for help in: https://www.facebook.com/groups/1580298322233838/
Finally here is a guide to larva in the UK, which should have some overlap with here (Syrphinae images start on page 130): http://www.dipteristsforum.org.uk/documents/DD/df_1_9_Colour_Guide_to%20Hoverfly_Larvae.pdf

Please let me know if you find photos of any other species!
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bacchini
Platycheirus obscurus - https://bugguide.net/node/view/1522687
P. quadratus - https://bugguide.net/node/view/1485182

Syrphini
Epistrophella emarginata - https://bugguide.net/node/view/71667, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/27463597

Eupeodes americanus/pomus - https://bugguide.net/node/view/351108, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1720315/bgimage (something is wrong here as the larvae are clearly of different species)

Scaeva pyrastri - https://bugguide.net/node/view/1013613, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1281961

Syrphus sp. - https://bugguide.net/node/view/182612, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1461033, https://bugguide.net/node/view/674916 (pupa), https://bugguide.net/node/view/405862

Lapposyrphus lapponicus (pupa) - https://bugguide.net/node/view/818293

Ocyptamus fuscipennis - https://bugguide.net/node/view/1278592, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1597677

Dioprosopa clavata - https://bugguide.net/node/view/33073, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6MWnW4mQxZg

Sphaerophoria - https://bugguide.net/node/view/1178971 (pupa)

Allograpta obliqua - https://bugguide.net/node/view/1696211/bgimage, https://bugguide.net/node/view/390290 (pupa), https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/5384075, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/17362320

Toxomerini

Toxomerus geminatus - https://bugguide.net/node/view/1467248, https://bugguide.net/node/view/321615, https://bugguide.net/node/view/1709714
T. marginatus - https://bugguide.net/node/view/569812 (pupa)
T. politus - https://vegcropshotline.org/article/hover-flies/
T. floralis - https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Georg_Goergen/publication/296086060_DNA_barcoding_identifies_an_introduced_hover_fly_species_Diptera_Syrphidae_Syrphinae_in_the_Afrotropics/links/56ebbef508aeb65d759424d1/DNA-barcoding-identifies-an-introduced-hover-fly-species-Diptera-Syrphidae-Syrphinae-in-the-Afrotropics.pdf

-----
Other resources
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=wu.89098844970&view=1up&seq=32
Apparently common and resembles a syrphid larva: https://bugguide.net/node/view/58829/bgimage
Hover fly larvae collection project: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/hover-fly-larvae-of-north-america

Ingresado el 14 de septiembre de 2019 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

28 de marzo de 2019

Lichen and Air Pollution in Hamilton, Ontario

The Hamilton Naturalists' Club and Environment Club did a study to test air quality in different parts of Hamilton using lichen:

"Testing both ash and maple trees, McMaster professor George Sorger found that there existed a relationship between two common lichen species (Physcia millegrana and Candelaria concolor) and sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels. Areas with a high lichen presence have better air quality than those with a low presence."

"Hamilton residents can help by planting native trees in their yards, as the greatest opportunity to increase the urban tree canopy is through private property. The low lichen diversity and abundance in urban areas also indicate the need to prioritize public transit and reduce exhaust emissions along high-travelled roadways. Lichen diversity should also be assessed and monitored in Hamilton over time to track changes in our airshed."

Identification tips in the Appendix.

http://hamiltonnature.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Lichen-Report-2018.pdf

Ingresado el 28 de marzo de 2019 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

20 de enero de 2019

Random Notes on Hoverfly Identification

Sphaerophoria in Eastern North America

Males with incomplete thorax stripe:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7413714

Females with incomplete thorax stripe:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15572261

Males with full thorax stripe (I think only S. philanthus identifiable):
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15576830

Females with full thorax stripe (I think only S. bifurcata identifiable):
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7452079

Good resource:
Vockeroth 1992 Syrphinae of Canada, Alaska, and Greenland: http://esc-sec.ca/wp/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/AAFC_insects_and_arachnids_part_18.pdf

Western female with incomplete stripe: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/34249225

Separating similar yellow-banded Syrphini

Eupeodes subgenus Metasyrphus, Syrphus, Epistrophe, others (Didea, Meliscaeva)

It's hard

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8593944
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8594111

Eupeodes latifasciatus on the east coast is an exception not always having black margins (https://bugguide.net/node/view/1021534/bgimage), and Syrphus opinator on the west coast is an exception having black margins (https://bugguide.net/node/view/268265/bgimage)
https://bugguide.net/node/view/99829/bgimage

If for some crazy reason you want to just look at the difficult ones here's a project for you: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/tricky-syrphini-from-north-america

Epistrophella
https://bugguide.net/node/view/852268/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/872187/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/832923/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/849752/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1274968/bgimage

Parasyrphus
https://bugguide.net/node/view/954145/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/776694/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1618772/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/882710/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1185190/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1579935/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1658999/bgimage

Some things from BugGuide comments on Epistrophe:
Yellow spots at base of abdomen widen toward margin (always narrow toward margin in Syrphus maybe?)
Edges of yellow bands on abdomen straight rather than curving (except usually a black point in the centre of the first band)
Edges of abdomen very fuzzy
Yellow on abdomen dull/mottled rather than bright yellow (also there is a "dark morph" with grey/brown bands)
https://bugguide.net/node/view/573350/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/153678/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/330766/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1406410/bgimage
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/10701332
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1740346/bgimage

E. metcalfi
- Very rare; no specimens collected since 1948

E. grossulariae
- Black antennae
- Wide straight yellow bands
- Black triangle on frons
- Syrphus knabi has dark antennae and can have wide straight bands, but doesn't have the black triangle to the same extent, (female) leg colouration also different
https://bugguide.net/node/view/330766/bgimage

E. nitidicollis
- Yellow antennae
- Black coxae

E. xanthostoma
- Yellow antennae
- Yellow coxae
- Deeper black pointing into the yellow bands?

E. terminalis
- Yellow antennae

Identifying Syrphus

https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/upupa-epops/27969-identifying-syrphus-hover-flies

Eupeodes subgenus Metasyrphus
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1047917/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1289558/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1718107/bgimage

E. flukei
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1311869/bgpage

E. snowi
https://bugguide.net/node/view/381686/bgimage

E. latifasciatus
- Yellow T5?
https://bugguide.net/node/view/219327/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1245201/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1447146/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1502572/bgimage

E. fumipennis
https://bugguide.net/node/view/670978/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1698014/bgimage

Scaeva vs Eupeodes subgenus Eupeodes

These have very similar abdomen patterns. Are they separated by head shape?

E. volucris
https://bugguide.net/node/view/35305/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/94855/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/338812/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/160500/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/169720/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/195639/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/476113/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/232255/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/100232/bgimage

S. pyrastri (now S. affinis I think?)
https://bugguide.net/node/view/77662/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/17657/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/268366/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/283443/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1738233/bgimage
Probably I can go through these links later and weed out some redundant ones...

Lapposyrphus, Dasysyrphus also similar.

Lapposyrphus
https://bugguide.net/node/view/165692
https://bugguide.net/node/view/20033/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/161960/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/310633/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/381930/bgimage

Allograpta

Allograpta in North America

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8490526

Melanistic: https://bugguide.net/node/view/977116/bgpage

Neotropical Allograpta

http://syrphidae.inpa.gov.br/

List of Neotropical species of each subgenus and locations from Mengual et al.:
A. obliqua group
aeruginosifrons (Brazil)
annulipes (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia)
aperta (Surinam, Guyana)
bilineella (Colombia)
browni (Ecuador)
exotica (central US south to Argentina)
falcata (Colombia, Venezuela)
hastata (Peru, Brazil)
hortensis (Peru, Chile, Argentina)
insularis (Puerto Rico)
limbata (West Indies, Brazil)
neotropica (Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil, Argentina) - https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/18423390
obliqua (Canada south to Argentina)
piurana (Peru, Chile)
pulchra (Chile, Easter Island)
radiata (Florida, West Indies)
robinsoniana (Juan Fernandez Island)
splendens (Galapagos)
tectiforma (Ecuador)
teligera (Ecuador, Brazil)
trilimbata (Mexico)

Mengual, Ruiz, Rojo, Stahls, & Thompson. A conspectus of the flower fly genus Allograpta (Diptera: Syrphidae) with description of a new subgenus and species. 2009. https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/16774/ent_FCT_124.pdf

https://everything.explained.today/Allograpta/
https://www.secret-bases.co.uk/wiki/Allograpta
http://beta.boldsystems.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxon=allograpta&searchTax=
http://syrphidae.myspecies.info/taxonomy/term/200/media
https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/taxonomy?taxon_key=1540899

https://research.amnh.org/iz/types_db/list_types.php?phylum_name=&class_name=&taxon_order_name=&family_name=&genus_name=allograpta&species_name=&author_name=
http://syrphidae.inpa.gov.br/index.php/generos/syrphi?id=62

Allograpta (Fazia) colombia
http://syrphidae.inpa.gov.br/index.php/generos/syrphi?id=69
http://syrphidae.myspecies.info/taxonomy/term/856

Fluke, 1942. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/2279 / http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/2279//v2/dspace/ingest/pdfSource/nov/N1201.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Ocyptamus

Ocyptamus in Florida:
https://bugguide.net/node/view/87148/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/92738/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/158699/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/344988/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/922476/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1479193/bgpage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1644440/bgpage

O. pumilus/callidus group has a unique pattern:
http://unibio.unam.mx/irekani/handle/123456789/26074?proyecto=Irekani
http://syrphidae.inpa.gov.br/index.php/passos/passo-v/passo-v-09
http://syrphidae.inpa.gov.br/index.php/generos/syrphi?id=95

Some places to search for specimen photos:
https://mczbase.mcz.harvard.edu/SpecimenSearch.cfm
http://beta.boldsystems.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxon=ocyptamus&searchTax=
http://syrphidae.inpa.gov.br/index.php/generos/syrphi?id=95
http://syrphidae.myspecies.info/taxonomy/term/206/media
https://diptera.info/photogallery.php?album_id=49 (Go to letter "O")
https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/taxonomy?media_type=StillImage&taxon_key=1537736
http://scan-bugs.org/portal/collections/harvestparams.php
http://140.247.96.247/mcz/findrecords.php?-link=Find%20members (search for "Baccha")
https://research.amnh.org/iz/types_db/list_types.php?phylum_name=&class_name=&taxon_order_name=&family_name=&genus_name=baccha&species_name=&author_name=

Recent papers:
Big thesis on Ocyptamus (2011) - https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/3017/GFGMiranda%20PhD%20Thesis.pdf?sequence=1 (some abdomen diagrams on page 160)
2012 taxonomy stuff - https://www.zfmk.de/dateien/atoms/files/ocyptamus_article.pdf
Some taxonomy stuff done (2016) - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308665731_The_genus_Ocyptamus_Macquart_Diptera_Syrphidae_A_molecular_phylogenetic_analysis
Paper with lots of diagrams, also in references looks like there may be more (2018) -
https://www.zfmk.de/dateien/dokumente/2018_ocyptamus.pdf

Other resources:
Hine, 1914 - descriptions of some species - https://kb.osu.edu/handle/1811/820 / https://kb.osu.edu/bitstream/handle/1811/1826/V14N08_333.pdf?sequence=1
Hull, 1943 - https://archive.org/stream/entomolog232419431944broo#page/n51/mode/2up/

Melangyna and Meligramma

Meligramma
https://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/mylmst_23/mylmst_23_363.HTM

Meligramma guttata
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1515075/bgpage

Melangyna
https://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/mylmst_23/mylmst_23_364.HTM
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1721674/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1338019/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1035271/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/71537/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1549044/bgimage

Melangyna labiatarum
https://bugguide.net/node/view/50655/bgimage
https://bugguide.net/node/view/108259/bgimage

Melangyna coei
https://bugguide.net/node/view/1560318/bgimage

Melangyna fisherii
https://bugguide.net/node/view/474940/bgimage

Toxomerus

https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/upupa-epops/14985-identifying-toxomerus-hoverflies

Platycheirus

P. obscurus
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12650658

Syrphinae Larvae

https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/upupa-epops/27363-some-syrphinae-larvae-of-north-america

Ingresado el 20 de enero de 2019 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 1 comentarios | Deja un comentario

10 de enero de 2019

Toxomerus watsoni confusion

I've noticed that many Toxomerus observations, especially in Mexico, are being identified as Toxomerus watsoni: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=any&subview=grid&taxon_id=418205
However, I've tried looking through all the papers I can find, and can't find any way to separate T. watsoni from similar species like T. duplicatus without a microscope.

I put all the similar individuals like that with simple abdomen patterns under one observation field so I can compare them here: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?field:Toxomerus%20identifiable%20group=T.%20cf.%20duplicatus

After doing this, I noticed that many of the individuals that are identified as T. watsoni look a bit different from unidentified individuals.
For example, these two are both males but they look different:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8735045
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/18581132

The one that is called "T. watsoni" has a thinner, tubular abdomen, the dark bands are mostly black, and the last abdomen segment has a different pattern.
The other one has a flat, wide, abdomen, the dark bands are lighter grey, and the last abdomen segment has just a black dot.
I see similar differences in females, although the abdomen structure is less different:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/18227103
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12283401

But I don't know if that's still not enough to identify them to species.

Other similar groups within the "T. cf. duplicatus" group

1. Ones identified as T. watsoni have a consistent look
- Orange centre of abdomen sections, pair of commas, blue/silver between with black borders
- Long thin abdomen

2. Orange bands, pairs of commas, shiny blue stripes with little or not black borders (thinner)
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/11915414
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20805941
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12283401

3. Orange or yellow bands, little or no commas, blue/shiny stripes with little or no black borders
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19827828
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/11928637
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/17277614
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/484716

4. Orange or yellow bands, no commas, blue stripes with black borders
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/21087951
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15864324
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20510754
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19625973

Most have dark ring near end of hind femur, but in some it's faint or not there.
Ones in Florida vary between groups 2 and 3: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=21&subview=grid&field:Toxomerus%20identifiable%20group=T.%20cf.%20duplicatus
What species is this?

---

I've been trying to make a list of species that fall into the general group of simple band patterns: https://www.inaturalist.org/observation_fields/8909#activity_comment_1835840

T. brevifacies
T. buscki
T. corbis/planiventris?
T. difficilis
T. duplicatus
T. ecuadoreus
T. idalius
T. minutus?
T. norma
T. papaveroi
T. paraduplicatus
T. pinchinchae
T. productus
T. puellus
T. steatogaster
T. taenius
T. watsoni

Ingresado el 10 de enero de 2019 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 1 comentarios | Deja un comentario

08 de enero de 2019

Rough Identification Guide to Slug Genera of Ontario (In Progress)

Guide to Superfamilies

When trying to identify a slug, here are some characteristics you should try to notice (in roughly this order of importance):
1. How much of the body is covered by the mantle
2. Location of breathing hole (pneumostome) on the right side of the slug, relative to the mantle
3. Shape (e.g. is there a keel/ridge on the tail behind the mantle or is it round)
4. Texture, especially on the mantle
5. Size
6. Colour and pattern (e.g. orange, brown, plain, mottled, stripes along the sides)
7. Mucus colour

By far the most common genera to see are Arion and Deroceras. Double-check if you think it is not one of those two. Also note that it is often difficult to determine species of slugs without dissection.

This guide only includes genera that I know to be in Ontario. It is unclear for sure what genera and species are present - hopefully iNaturalist can help improve our knowledge. I'd appreciate any suggestions or critique.

Superfamily Parmacelloidea

Has a strong keel running all the way from the mantle to the tail
Pneumostome toward back of mantle
Mantle can look like it has two different sections
Mostly plain colouration with little pattern
- 2 genera in Ontario (Milax, Tandonia) in one family

Superfamily Limacoidea

Rounded tail (no keel) except sometimes at very end of tail
Pneumostome toward back of mantle
Mantle texture often with circular ridges resembling fingerprint
Can have plain, mottled, or striped pattern
- 5 genera (Lehmannia, Limacus, Limax, Deroceras, Boetgerilla) in three families

Superfamily Arionoidea

Pneumostome usually either halfway along or toward front of mantle
If the mantle covers most of the slug (i.e. not just the front half, or it looks like it has no mantle), then it is in this superfamily
Pattern often striped, but can be plain or mottled
- At least 4 genera (Arion, Megapallifera, Pallifera, Philomycus) in at least two families

Guide to Genera of Superfamily Parmacelloidea

Guide to Genera of Superfamily Limacoidea

Guide to Genera of Superfamily Arionoidea

Ingresado el 08 de enero de 2019 por upupa-epops upupa-epops | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario