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Fotos / Sonidos

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Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Noviembre 5, 2019 12:47 PM -05

Descripción

NUMBER: 20191105
SPECIES: Cuban Tree Frog, Osteopilus septentrionalis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)[1]
DISTINCTIONS: Largest tree frog in Florida. May grow larger than 6.4 cm (>2.5 in). Has large toe pads, bulging eyes with an orange ting, and a wash of yellow at junction of legs and body. Usually has a warty, or bumpy, beige, or white, skin. Unfortunately, quite variable in color and pattern and can change colors. Young usually greenish or brownish with lines down their sides, reddish eyes, and blue bones clearly visible through undersides of their legs.
LOCALITY: Lely Palms Club, Naples, Florida, USA 34113
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26º6’30.6” N, 81º43’2.6” W (26.1085, -81.7174)
DATE: 5 November 2019
PHOTO: by Robert Bowman
COLLECTION: only photographed
RESEARCH: We collected introduced Cuban Tree Frogs in Puerto Rico for a graduate student stomach-contents study in the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez Biology Department.
IRRITATION: They have a horrible, loud call.
DAMAGE: Outcompete and consume native tree frogs and everything else they can get into their mouths. Climb up into electrical equipment and cause short-circuits.
DANGER: They secrete toxins that burn human eyes and may cause skin rashes and asthma-like conditions. May similarly harm pets or cause seizures.
REPORTED TO: Dr. Steve A. Johnson tadpole@ufl.edu 9 December 2019
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Johnson, S. A. 2017. The Cuban Tree Frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension WEC218. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw259
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. A report of the invasive and destructive Cuban Tree Frog, Osteopilus septentrionalis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841), in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida 34113. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #36506267, 9 December (open access) [449][1]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and condensed. The entire, original text is in our available reprint.

Fotos / Sonidos

Square

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Junio 15, 2019

Descripción

NUMBER: 20190615
SPECIES: Yellow Fragile Mushroom,[1] Leucocoprinus magnicystidiosus H. V. Smith and N. S. Webber, 1982[2]
DISTINCTIONS: Very thin, bright yellow cap and stem, stem (stipe) with ring (annulus). Cap pleated or deeply grooved, center yellow.
SIZE: Cap 5.9 cm (3.6 in) wide vs. Fragile Dapperling (see below) 1.5-4.5 cm wide.
DATE, TIME: 15 JUNE 2019, 10 am
LOCALITY: Botanical Garden, Naples, Florida. This was not a mushroom display and was thus essentially “wild.”
HABITAT: Opening in trees and bushes with leaf litter.
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°6’24.8” N, 81°46’19.6” W (26.1069, -81.7721)
SIMILAR SPECIES: Fragile Dapperling (mushroom), Leucocoprinus fragilissimus (Revenel in Berkeley and Curtis, 1853) is very similar and much better known. Therefore, Yellow Fragile Mushroom is often misidentified as Fragile Dapperling. However, it has a brighter yellow cap and stem; and a wider cap and stem (see SIZE above).
PHOTOGRAPH: EHW
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. A report of the little-known Yellow Fragile Mushroom, Leucocoprinus magnicystidiosus Smith and Webber, 1982, in Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #36478777, 7 December (open access) [448][2]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested New Common Name based on its color and fragility.
[2]Identification was per-reviewed and the text edited and condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint.

Fotos / Sonidos

Square

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Ardilla Gris de Las Carolinas Sciurus carolinensis

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

el pasado

Descripción

NUMBER: 20190720
SPECIES: Eastern Gray Squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis[1] Gmelin, 1788
SUBSPECIES: Eastern Gray Squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis carolinensis[1] Gmelin, 1788
BREVARD LEUCISTIC COLOR MORPH: This “White Squirrel” variety has a gray patch on top of the head and a thin, gray stripe along the spine. There is a population in Brevard, NC (35.2334, -82.7343). Apparently, a pair was originally brought to Brevard from north Florida.
SIZE: adult
DATE: 20 July 2019
TIME, DURATION: 11 am, 15 min
LOCALITY: Lake Toxaway, North Carolina 28712
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 35º7’56.28” N, 82º56’2.40” W (35.1323, -82.9340)
HABITAT: open grounds around Lake
REPORTED TO: Rob Nelson, White and Albino Squirrel Research in the US [=USA], https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSfVad2nrmK3i9p-pxw7CWGfgymljylVT4ZcXVVmgoPszTy7eA/viewform
DATA REPORT: iNaturalist #36293850
COMMENTS: Dr. Raymond E. Waldner (pers. comm.) found these morphs are established around the Lake. However, they do not seem to be on published occurrence lists (Koprowski, 2016; Nelson, 2019).
ORIGIN: This “Brevard Morph” probably came from the town of Brevard, which is 25.7 km (16 mi) away. We do not know if this was a natural range expansion or an introduction.
IMPORTANCE: Lake Toxaway represents a New Locality Record.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Koprowski, J. L., K. E. Munroe, and A. J. Edelman. 2016. Gray not grey:[8] The ecology of Sciurus carolinensis in their native range in North America. Chapter 1, Pages 1-18 In: C. Shuttleworth, P. Lurz, and J. Gurnell (Eds.) Grey Squirrels: Ecology and management of an invasive species in Europe. European Squirrel Initiative https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311886807_Gray_not_grey_the_ecology_of_Sciurus_carolinensis_in_their_native_range_in_North_America
<>Nelson, R. 2019. White and Albino Squirrel Research Initative, Sciurus carolinensis . https://untamedscience.com/biodiversity/white-squirrel/
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. A New Locality Record for White (Leucistic) Gray Squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788, Lake Toxaway, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #36293850, 2 December (open access) [446][1]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and condensed. The entire, original text is in our available reprint.
[8]A good review, but “Gray not Grey,” in the title, is never explained in the chapter, nor followed in the chapter text. The approved common name uses the USA spelling “Gray.”

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Gallineta Frente Roja Gallinula galeata

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Julio 12, 2019 12:59 PM UTC

Descripción

NUMBER: 20190727
SPECIES: American[1] Gallinule, Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein, 1818)
OTHER NAMES: “Common Gallinule” is the accepted, albeit unfortunate[2], common name. “Common Moorhen[3]” is also used. Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758), was until recently thought to be a circumtropical/temperate species, which included, G. galeata.
DISTINCTIONS: Plumage is dark (Fig. A) except for a white undertail and wing edges, yellow legs, a red frontal shield (Fig. B), and red beak with a yellow tip (Fig. B). Has very long toes (for walking on aquatic vegetation and mud) (Fig. C).
DATE, TIME COLLECTED: 27 July 2019, 12:58 pm
LOCALITY: Urban Estates, Bonito Springs, Florida 34135
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°6’12” N, 81°43’37” W (26.2017, -81.7269)
CONDITION: Very fresh (no flies, few ants, no odor). Minor abrasions. Apparently, a roadkill.
HABITAT: paved road bisecting large lake.
SIMILAR SPECIES: American Coot, Fulica americana, is often found associated with the American Gallinule. Its beak is mostly white, head black, and body gray. Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus, is also sympatric with AG, if not so closely associated. It is brightly colored with a purple head, neck, and breast; light blue frontal shield; and red bill with a yellow tip.
KNOWN DISTRIBUTION: New World (American) tropical and temperate zones. In the continental USA, this bird is more common in southern Louisiana and southern Florida.
IMPORTANCE: iNaturalist did not have a report from SW Florida. Thus, our otherwise mundane report may be of some interest.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[5,6,8,9] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[5,7,8,10]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [5]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [6]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [7]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [8]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [9]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [10]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. New Record in southwest Florida for iNaturalist of American Gallinule, Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein, 1818). Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #36177344, 28 November 2019 (open access) [439]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]This species only occurs in the New World = American. [2]The designation “common” should never be used. [3]We have no “moors” (moorlands). [4]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #439.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Noviembre 24, 2019

Lugar

(En algún lugar...)

Descripción

NUMBER: 20191124
SPECIES: Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger Linnaeus,1758
SUBSPECIES: Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia Howell, 1919 [BCFS]
NUMBER, SIZE, CONDITION: 1, large adult, melanistic
DATE, TIMES: 24 November 2019; 9 am and 4:45 pm
DATA: iNaturalist #36160838
OTHER ANIMALS: When the Bobcat (iNaturalist #35778168) was in our neighborhood, BCFSs stayed away.
KNOWN DISTRIBUTION: BCFS occurs in southwestern Florida. However, the exact distributions of fox squirrels, and melanistic ones in particular, are poorly known in Florida (Greene, 2014).
IMPORTANCE: BCFS is Threatened and rarely seen. Mostly black (melanistic) individuals are even rarer.
MELANISM: This is more common in Gray Squirrels in the NE and Mid-west USA and United Kingdom. Melanistic individuals have been transplanted to many USA cities and UK as park novelties or mascots. McRobie et al. (2014) found the genetics of melanism in Red and Fox Squirrels were different from Gray Squirrels. However, later, they found some in Fox and Gray Squirrels are the same. This formed an interesting evolutionary puzzle (McRobie et al., 2019).
Melanism in Fox Squirrels seems a bit confused in the literature. Many have some natural black areas, particularly on top of the head. Gray Squirrels have more melanic individuals in the north of their range while Fox Squirrels have more in the south. Their abundance in BCFS is apparently not known.
Our specimen appeared to be completely black except for the tail in observations. However, different colors can be recognized in the photographs. It was actually mostly black (80% including ventral, head, chest, tail, legs) but had white ears, feet, and nose. Also had a golden-brown belly. This corresponds to Partial Melanic of McRobie et al. (2019).
SURVEY: We have been recording when BCFSs are in our neighborhood (#3090832: Table 1; Tables 1 & 2).
PHOTOGRAPHS: EHW. We tried to obtain photos of this animal 4 times. On the fifth occasion the squirrel was more cooperative (Table 2).

Table 1. New Big Cypress Fox Squirrel observations in Lely Palms (see iNaturalist #3090832)
Number Date Time Size Locality Latitude Longitude
20190909 09 Sep 3:30 pm adult backdoor 26.1069, -81.7153
20191005 05 Oct 8:45 am adult backdoor 26.1069, -81.7153
2019102 20 Mar 5:00 pm adult backdoor 26.1069, -81.7153
20191025 25 Oct 3:30 pm adult back yard 26.1069, -81.7153

Table 2. Observations of a melanistic Big Cypress Fox Squirrel in Lely Palms.
Number Date Time Time Locality Latitude Longitude
20191110 10 Nov 8:50 am quick back yard 26.1069, -81.7153
20191119 19 Nov 3:00 pm quick near road 26.1066, -81.7145
20191120 20 Nov 8:00 am quick close yard 26.1068, -81.7143
20191124 24 Nov 9:00 am quick close yard 26.1068, -81.7143
20191124 24 Nov 4:45 pm* 15 min close yard 26.1068, -81.7143
*photos taken

REFERENCES
<>McRobie, H. R., L. M. King, C. Fanutti, P. J. Coussons, N. D. Moncrief, A. P. M. Thomas. 2014. Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) gene sequence variation and melanism in the Gray (Sciurus carolinensis), Fox (Sciurus niger), and Red (Sciurus vulgaris) Squirrel. Journal of Heredity 105: 423-428, https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esu006

<>McRobie, H. R., N. D. Moncrief, N and N. I. Mundy. 2019. Multiple origins of melanism in two species of North American tree squirrel (Sciurus). BMC Evolutionary Biology 19(140) https://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12862-019-1471-7#citeas

<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. A rare melanistic Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia Howell, 1919, in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #36160838, 28 November (open access) [445]

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Julio 14, 2010

Lugar

Sri Lanka (Google, OSM)

Descripción

NUMBER: 20100614
SPECIES: Leopard, Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758)
OTHER NAMES: Black Panther
SUBSPECIES: Sri Lankan Leopard, Panthera pardus kotiya Deraniyagala, 1956
DISTINCTIONS: Of the 4 wild cats in Sri Lanka, the Sri Lankan Leopard [SLL] is the only one with large, clover-leaf-shaped, distinct spots. It is also larger (>1 m) than the others (2 < 0.5 m, 1 < 1 m). SLL has a thick tail unlike the others. It also has a longer tail (>half body length vs. Gunawardena, K. 2019. Cats in Siri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Leopard, Panthera pardus kotiya Deraniyagala, 1956. Wilpattu. https://www.wilpattu.com/sri-lankan-leopard.php
<>Mayes, M. 2018. Shadow cats: The Black Panthers of North America. Anomalist Books, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
<>Nanayakkara, R. 2009. The elusive Black Leopards of Sri Lanka. The Island Online. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ranil_Nanayakkara/publication/262198073_The_Elusive_Black_Leopards_of_Sri_Lanka/links/0c9605370844355986000000.pdf
<>da Silva, L. G. 2017. Ecology and evolution of melanism in big cats: Case study with black leopards and jaguars. Chapter 6 In: A. B. Shrivastav and K. P. Singh (Eds.) Big Cats, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69558. Available free online: https://www.intechopen.com/books/big-cats/ecology-and-evolution-of-melanism-in-big-cats-case-study-with-black-leopards-and-jaguars
<>da Silva, L. G., K. Kawanishi, P. Henschel, A. Kittle, A. Sanei, A. Reebin, et al. 2017. Mapping black panthers: Macroecological modeling of melanism in leopards (Panthera pardus). PLoS ONE 12(4): e0170378. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170378
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. One of the very few confirmed records of a “Black Panther” (Sri Lankan Leopard), Panthera pardus kotiya Deraniyagala, 1956, in Sri Lanka. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #35949825, 22 November (open access) [444]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. A possible “Bobanther,” Bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber, 1777) X North American Panther, Puma concolor couguar Kerr, 1792, hybrid, in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #35778168, 17 November (open access) [442]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr., R. E. Waldner, and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. First confirmed report of a black (melanistic) Panther in North America? Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #35790675, 17 November (open access) [443]

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Gato Doméstico Felis catus

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Enero 22, 2013

Descripción

NUMBER: 20130121
SPECIES: Panther, Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1758)
SUBSPECIES: North American Panther, Puma concolor couguar Kerr, 1792 [formerly Florida Panther, Puma concolor coryi Bangs, 1899]. Only 1 subspecies is recognized in North America; however, it has been extirpated in eastern North America, except Florida.
DISTINCTIONS: Long, thick tail, large head, deep (not fat body), very muscular legs.
SIZE, DEVELOPMENT: body ~1.0-1.2 m (3.5-4 ft) long (estimated), immature
DATE, TIME, DURATION: 21 January 2013, early morning, 2-3 minutes
LOCALITY: near John Prince Park, Lake Osborne in Lake Worth, Florida (USA)
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 35°35’30.12” N, 80°4’40.44” W (26.5917, -80.0779)
HABITAT: in open field near woods
REPORTED TO: Florida Panther Project, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. They said the specimen was a Domestic Cat, Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758, and did not investigate. Obviously, it was not a Domestic Cat. The tail is too thick and held in the wrong position. The head is too large and the wrong shape. This animal was known, as a mystery, to local residents. They did not believe it was a feral Domestic Cat.
DATA REPORT: iNaturalist #35790675 [also see iNaturalist #35778168 & ???]
BEHAVIOR: laying in open field. Stood up, stretched, and walked slowly into some woods.
PHOTOGRAPHER: Michael Skinner ~23 m (~75 ft) away
BLACK BOBCAT: Coleman (2007) documented 14 black (melanistic) Bobcats in south- and south-central Florida (1939-2007). He stated no Florida records of documented black Panthers exist. Apparently, no confirmed record of any North American black Panther exists. REW thought the cat was a Panther. The Figure shows a large, black cat with a thick, long tail. This was not a Bobcat.
IMPORTANCE: Possible first record of a North American black Panther
BLACK LEOPARD: Coincidentally, LBW and EHW observed and photographed a rare black Sri Lankan Leopard, Panthera pardus kotiya Deraniyagala, 1956, 14 July 2010, in Horton Plains National Park, Nuwara Eliya, Siri Lanka [see iNaturalist #???].
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.[1,2,4,5] Dr. Raymond E. Waldner [7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[1,3,4,6]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [1]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [2]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [3]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [4]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [5]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [6]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x; [7] Professor of Biology and Associate Dean of Sciences, Palm Beach Atlantic University, 901 S. Flagler Drive, West Palm Beach, Fl 33410.
REFERENCES:
<>Coleman, L. 2007. Melanistic Bobcat caught. Cryptomundo News, https://cryptomundo.com/cryptozoo-news/07blk-bobcat/
<>NBC. 2007. Lynx on the rise, breeding with bobcats in N.B. CBS News, posted 5 February 2007, https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/lynx-on-the-rise-breeding-with-bobcats-in-n-b-1.685497
<>Williams, E. H., Jr., R. E. Waldner, and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. First confirmed report of a black (melanistic) Panther in North America? Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #35790675, 17 November (open access) [443]

Fotos / Sonidos

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Lince Americano Lynx rufus

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Octubre 6, 2019 11:10 AM ADT

Descripción

20191006
DATE, TIME: 6 October 2019, noon
SPECIES: Bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber, 1777)
OTHER NAMES: Florida Wild Bobcat, Florida Lynx, Wildcat; Felis rufus Schreber, 1777
SUBSPECIES: Eastern Bobcat, Lynx rufus rufus (Schreber, 1777)
OTHER NAMES: This was originally named the Florida Bobcat, Lynx rufus floridanus (Rafinesque, 1858), in part and Lynx rufus floridanus (Rafinesque, 1817), in part.
IDENTIFICATION: This animal was so large that some in our neighborhood reported it as a North American Panther, Puma concolor couguar Kerr, 1792 [formerly Florida Panther, Puma concolor coryi Bangs, 1899] (see Hybrid section below and Figure).
LOCALITY: Near south mailboxes in Olé, Lely Palms, Naples, Florida 34113
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°4’54.8” N, 81°41’20.7” W (26.0819, -81.6891)
PHOTOGRAPHER: Karen Burns
DATA: iNaturalist #35778168
HYBRIDS: Broad (2018) confirmed a hybrid between a Panther and Bobcat in Florida. Our specimen seemed a bit like a Panther in size, rounded ears, head and body shape, and lack of obvious tuffs of hair on the face. However, it had the tail, spots, and coloration of a Bobcat.
Broad (2018) dismissed photographs of several other animals as odd Bobcats, which appeared to have some characters of both species. He only considered F1 (direct) Bobcat x Panther crosses. If direct hybrids exist, and are fertile, then many of his rejected “Bobcats” may be expressing differing genetic mixtures obtained by repeated backcrossing between hybrids and parental species (introgressive hybridization). This could represent another threat to the Critically Endangered Florida population of Panthers.
NUMBER, SEX: 1, adult male
HISTORY: The same large animal has been seen all over the Lely Palms neighborhood for ~3 months (~20 July-16 Oct.). EHW saw an Eastern Gray Squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788, circle of fur that had neatly been pulled off in our back-yard 20 July. Previously, we had many Gray Squirrels and Rabbits. Now they have vanished. Fox Squirrels only returned to our area after the Bobcat departed(?) (10 & 11 Nov.) [also see iNaturalist #212045694 & 3090832].
BEHAVIOR: Very active in daytime. Also, photographed by several home-security cameras at night. Oddly, not as secretive as most Bobcats. Seemed unafraid of humans.
REPRODUCTION: Seen with 1 small, young animal in daytime.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Broad, M. 2018 Puma/Bobcat hybrid Florida? pictures-of-cats.org (PoC). https://pictures-of-cats.org/Pumabobcat-Hybrid-Florida.html
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. A possible “Bobanther,” Bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber, 1777) X North American Panther, Puma concolor couguar Kerr, 1792, hybrid, in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #35778168, 16 November (open access) [442]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested New Common Name “Bobanther” [bēˈō,ˈbanTHər]. “Bob” from Bobcat and “anther” from Panther

Fotos / Sonidos

No hay fotos o sonidos

Qué

Bobo Norteño Morus bassanus

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Noviembre 5, 2019 09:10 PM AST

Descripción

NUMBER: 20191105
SPECIES: Northern Gannet, Morus bassanus (Linnaeus, 1766) [NG]
DISTINCTIONS: Very large bird with white, streamlined body; long, slender, white wings with black wing tips (diagnostic); and long neck.
PHOTOGRAPH: We did not obtain a photo, but clearly saw the diagnostic characters for this species. We are very certain of our identification.
SIZE: ~1 m long body, wingspan ~1.8 m
NUMBER, DEVELOPMENT: 1, adult
SIMILAR SPECIES: Somewhat similar to Red-footed Booby, Sula sula Linnaeus, 1766 [RFB], and Cape Gannet, Morus capensis (Lichtenstein, 1823) [CG]. RFB occurs in the Caribbean, but differs from NG by being smaller (0.77 cm long, wingspan 1.52 m) and having an entirely dark upper wing. CG is similar to NG in size and white color. It differs from NG by only occurring around Africa, having black along back edge of wings, long pointed tail and wings, and bright red feet (usually hidden when flying).
LOCALITY: Caribbean Sea 161 km south of Haiti on return from Aruba to Florida (USA)
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 16°36’48” N, 73°24’30” W (16.6133, -73.4083)1
DATE, TIME: 5 November 2019, 9:20 am
CRUISE NUMBER, NAME, COMPNY: our #86,2 Crown Princess, Princess Cruises
DISTRIBUTION: Winters down to northern continental coasts of Gulf of Mexico. In the West Indies, vagrants have been reported from the Bahamas, Cuba and Trinidad and Tobago; also, NE Brazil (BirdLife International, 2016; de Castro Teixeira, 2006). Thus our siting is out of this bird’s normal range, but well within the range of its vagrants.
DATA REPORT: iNaturalist #35392604
COMMENTS: We have some interest in Caribbean marine birds (Dyer et al. 2002; Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1989, 1992, 1993, 2006; Williams et al., 1992)3 and; therefore, recognized this bird as something unusual. We have also reported other marine-island birds (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1986, 2000; Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1985, 1986, 2000a,b; 2007)3.
IMPORTANCE: This bird was probably just a vagrant, but still of interest.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,4,5,7,8 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams4,5,7,9
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 4Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 5Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 6Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 7920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 8e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 9Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:3
<>BirdLife International. 2016. “Morus bassanus” IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
<>Bunkley-Williams, L. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1996. Observations of an Audubon’s [Black-Headed] Oriole Icterus graduacuda in Puerto Rico, the first record for the Caribbean. El Pitirre (Publication of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology) 9: 2. http://www.scscb.org/ Journal of Caribbean Ornithology, Archives, Volume 9, Number 2. [189]
<>Bunkley-Williams, L. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 2000. Unusual nesting and occurrence records for Guamá, Puerto Rico, 1975-1999. El Pitirre (Publication of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology) 12: 92-94. http://www.scscb.org/ Journal of Caribbean Ornithology, Archives, Volume 12, Number 3; Google Scholar [253]
<>de Castro Teixeira, R. S., R. Otoch, and M. A. Raposo. 2006. First record of Northern Gannet, Morus bassanus, in the Southern Hemisphere. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 136: 151-152.
<>Dyer, W. G., E. H. Williams, Jr., A. A. Mignucci-Giannoni, N. M. Jiménez-Marrero, L. Bunkley-Williams, D. P. Moore and D. B. Pence. 2002. Helminth and arthropod parasites of the Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, in Puerto Rico, with a compilation of all metazoan parasites reported from this host in the Western Hemisphere. Avian Pathology 31: 441-448. http://www.suagm.edu/umet/red/Dyer02AP.pdf; Google Scholar [285]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. B. Williams. 1985. A new bird record for Puerto Rico: The Yellow throated Vireo from Vieques. Caribbean Journal of Science 21: 187. http://academic.uprm.edu/publications/cjs/VOL21/P187-188.PDF [74]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. B. Williams. 1986. A list of birds from the Sesoko Marine Science Center, Okinawa, with notes on birds from Kume and the Yaeyama Islands. Galaxea 5: 295 297. Google Scholar [80]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1989. Brown Pelican die-off. Estuarine Calendar and Bulletin, April 1989: 3. Google Scholar [106]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1992. Two unusual sea bird records from Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science 28: 105. http://academic.uprm.edu/publications/cjs/VOL28/P099-110.PDF [139]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr., L. Bunkley-Williams, and Iván López-Irizarry. 1992. Die-off of Brown Pelicans in Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands. American Birds 46: 1106-1108. Google Scholar [144]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1993. Three unusual marine bird records. Caribbean Journal of Science 29: 127. http://academic.uprm.edu/publications/cjs/VOL29/P124-129.PDF [148]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2000a. An apparent out-of-season breeding by a pair of Black-necked Stilts and additional observation of birds on Lee Stocking Island, Exumas, the Bahamas. El Piterre (Publication of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology) 12: 43-44. http://www.scscb.org/ Journal of Caribbean Ornithology, Archives, Volume 12, Number 2; Google Scholar [267]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2000b. Possible typhoon displacement of a Chinese Goshawk to Guam. Transactions of the Western Section of the Wildlife Society 36: 40. [268]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2006. Rapid beak-swinging locomotion in the Puerto Rican Spindalis. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 118: 571-572. Google Scholar [317]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2007. Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird), a crown pattern the Rock Beauty (angelfish), and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper), and their possible genetic significance. Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology 54(Suppliment 3): 161-169. [http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-77442006000400022&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=en]; Google Scholar [326]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. New Locality Record in the Caribbean Sea well south of Haiti for Northern Gannet, Morus bassanus (Linnaeus, 1766). Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #35392604, 6 November 2019 (open access) [441]
FOOTNOTES:
1From ship’s log
272 scientific cruises, 14 commercial cruises
3PDF copies of our papers are available from ermest.williams1@upr.edu

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Chinche Acuática Gigante Lethocerus uhleri

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Octubre 15, 2019 10:00 AM ADT

Descripción

NUMBER: 20191015
SPECIES: Eastern Toe-Biter, Benacus griseus (Say, 1832)
OTHER NAMES: Lethocerus griseus (Say, 1832), Lethocerus sp. of Choate, 2019.
DISTINCTIONS: Interorbital space more than 3/4s but less than entire width of 1 eye; no grooves on inner margin of the fore femur (diagnostic); middle and hind legs with none or only vague bands (Choate, 2019; Figs. A,B).
NUMBER; SIZE; SEX: 1; 4.8 cm (2.9 in) long, 2.0 cm (1.65 in) wide
DATE, TIME: 15 October 2019, 10:00 am
COLLECTION: street light night before
SPECIMEN CONDITION: slightly damaged, dried
LOCALITY: Putting green at Lely Palms, Naples, Florida 34113 USA.
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26º6’28.1” N, 81º42”47.2’ W (26.1078, -81.7131)
DISTRIBUTION: Florida.
PHOTOS: by EHW. Posterior part is one of two dislodged snorkel tubes (spiracle) not an oviposterior.
DATA: iNaturalist #34896294
SIMILAR SPECIES: Narrow-nose Giant Waterbug[1], Lethocerus uhleri (Montandon, 1896) [NGW]. Dorsal and ventral whole-body photographs (Choate, 2019)
OTHER NAMES: giant water bug [GWB = Belostomatodae] electric light bug, toe bitter, Uhler’s water bug
DISTINCTIONS: distinctly banded middle and hind legs; distance between eyes is 3/4s or less of 1-eye width; grooves on inner margin of the fore femur (diagnostic); fore and hind femur[2] very morphologically different
USE: An even larger GWBs, Lethocerus spp., are prized in Asia as human delicacies. Reputed to taste like penaeid shrimp.
DANGER: Literature claims only attacks humans in self-defense. We have many reports of GWBs swimming up to people in swimming pools and biting them without provocation (e.g., Dr. David L. Ballantine, pers. comm.). The sting or bite is very painful. EHW has had them swim up to him, but he just captured them. The bite is reputed to sometimes cause permanent damage.
COMMENTS: We first identified our specimen as the American Giant Waterbug,[1] which was admittedly not correct. Several iNaturalist members were kind enough to “correct” our identification to Lethocerus uhleri. This made us reevaluate our identification. Choate (2019) illustrated a Lethocerus sp., (very similar to our specimen) and L. uhleri. We asked Dr. Elper about Dr. Choate’s Lethocerus sp. and he identified it as Benacus griseus.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: We thank John H. Epler, Aquatic Entomologist, Crawfordville, Florida; Lyle Buss and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, Insect Identification Lab, Entomology & Nematology, Department, University of Florida, for information.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,86,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Choate, P. M. 2019 (revised). Life cycle, key to species, and distribution of Florida Belostomatidae. University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematodology, EENY-301, http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/bugs/giant_water_bugs.htm
<>Epler, J. H. 2010. Identification manual for the aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera of Florida. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resource Management, Tallahassee, Florida. http://publicfiles.dep.state.fl.us/dear/labs/biology/biokeys/heteroptera.pdf
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Eastern Toe-Biter, Benacus griseus (Say, 1832), in Naples, Florida 34113 USA, and identification to species of Lethocerus sp. of Choate, 2019. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #34896294, 25 October 2019 [revised 8 November 2019] (open access) [440]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested new common name
[2]Femur is the base segment of the leg.

Fotos / Sonidos

Square

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Enero 28, 2016

Descripción

NUMBER: 20160630
SPECIES: Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)
DISTINCTIONS: see iNaturalist #34208731
LOCALITY: Sanibel Island, Florida, USA
COMMENTS: see our iNaturalist #34208731 for additional details on this barnacle.
DATE: 30 June 2016
COLLECTION: Red Tide mass mortality
HABITAT: Frick et al. (2004) reported this barnacle on a tiny specimen of this crab that was epibiontic on a Loggerhead Seaturtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758), and thus a hyperepibiont.
PHOTOGRAPH: by Hal Brindley, HalBrindley.com; also Travel for Wildlife.com, https://www.travel4wildlife.com/living-shells-photo-gallery-sanibel-seashore-creatures/
HOST: Atlantic Spider Crab, Libinia emarginata Leach, 1815
OTHER NAMES: Common Spider Crab, Portly Spider Crab
DISTINGUISHMENTS: The triangular upper shell (carapace) of this crab is round and spiny, with nine small spines running down the center. ~10 cm (~4 in) long carapace
DATA: iNaturalist #34787392
DATA: iNaturalist #34325071
COMMENTS: see our iNaturalist #34208731 for additional details on this barnacle and host.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[1,2,4,5] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[1,3,4,6]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [1]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [2]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [3]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [4]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [5]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [6]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES: (also see iNaturalist #34208731, #34325071)
Frick, M. G., K. L. Williams, E. J. Markesteyn, J. B. Pfaller, and R. E. Frick. 2004. New records and observations of epibionts from Loggerhead Sea Turtles. Southern Naturalist 3: 613-620. https://doi.org/10.1656/1528-7092(2004)003[0613:NRAOOE]2.0.CO;2
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. A record of the Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), a rare epibiont of the Atlantic Spider Crab, Libinia emarginata Leach, 1815, and hyperepibiont, at Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. iNaturalist #34787392, Research Quality Report, 23 October (open access) [438]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. New host record of the Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818), off Dauphin Island, Alabama. iNaturalist, Research Quality Report #34208731, 11 October (open access) [433]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. Another Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamark, 1818) at Sanibel Island, Florida (USA). Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #34325071, 13 October (open access) [434]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019c. A New Host, Calico Crab, Hepatus epheliticus (Linnaeus, 1763), for the Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), at Cumberland Island, Georgia (USA). Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #34492246, 15 October (open access) [435]

Fotos / Sonidos

Square

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Junio 18, 2019 10:34 AM ADT

Descripción

NUMBER: 20190618
SPECIES: Northern Rock Barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus, 1767) [NRB]
DISTINCTION: The sutures between a tergum and a scutum is S-shaped in the NRB (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019; iNaturalist #34688893). This cannot be discerned in this open-access photograph, but is clear in her, view only, close-ups online protected from copying.
LOCALITY: 1563 Post Road, Wells, Maine, 04090 USA
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 43°19’20” N, 70°34’49.3” W (43.3224, -70.5804)
DATE, TIME: 18 June 2019, 7:59 am
HOST: Common Periwinkle, Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
PHOTOGRAPH: by Christine Young https://www.jungledragon.com/image/81088/northern_rock_barnacle_-_semibalanus_balanoides.html
COMMENT: The photographer identified this barnacle as NRB, and we agree. She did not identify the snail host. It is the Common Periwinkle. Further, this represents a new host record for the barnacle.
DATA: iNaturalist #34690014
IMPORTANCE: As far as we can determine, this represents a New Host Species for NRB.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[4,5,7,8] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[4,6,7,9]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [4]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [5]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [6]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [7]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [8]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [9]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. New Host Record, the introduced, Common Periwinkle, Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758), for the Northern Rock Barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus, 1767), Wells, Maine, USA. iNaturalist, Research Quality Report #34690014, 21 October (open access) [437]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. New Host Record for the Northern Rock Barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus, 1767), on the Green Crab, Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758), by the shore at Dunure, Scotland, UK. iNaturalist #34688893, Research Quality Report, 19 October (open access) [436]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019c. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019d. New host record of the Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818), off Dauphin Island, Alabama. iNaturalist, Research Quality Report #34208731, 11 October (open access) [433]

Fotos / Sonidos

Square

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Agosto 26, 2017

Descripción

NUMBER: 20170826
SPECIES: Northern Rock Barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus, 1767) [NRB]
OTHER NAMES: Balanus balanoides Linnaeus, 1767, is still used. Acorn Barnacle, Common Barnacle, Common Rock Barnacle, Rock Barnacle, Wart Barnacle.
DISTINCTIONS: NRB has 6 greyish wall plates surrounding a pentagonal to diamond-shaped operculum. Rostral[1] (basal) plate is large and overlaps adjacent lateral plates. Base is membranous, unlike other 6-plated barnacles; shell plates folded; larger barnacles sometimes have small, short finger-shaped projections[2] around their base (also see CAB Distinctions below).
KNOWN DIAMETER: 2.5-7.5 cm (1-3 in).
DATE: 26 August 2017
LOCALITY: Bumpkin Island, Hingham Bay, Boston Harbor, off Hull, Massachusetts (USA)
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 42°16’47.3” N, 70°53’58.2” W (42.2798, -70.8995)
PHOTOGRAPH: by Ms. Monikah Schuschu https://hiveminer.com/Tags/barnacle%2Ccrustacean/Timeline
HABITATS: This is a common upper intertidal barnacle. NRB occasionally attaches to crabs, the Horseshoe Crab, Seaturtles, nd whales. Barnes and Powell (1953) showed CABs attached to hosts had about a third of the growth rate of those attached to the substratum.
SIMILAR SPECIES: Crenate Acorn Barnacle, Balanus crenatus Bruguiere, 1789, [CAB] is apparently an uncommon symbiot on crustaceans and mollusks in North America but is common on a lobster and a shrimp in Europe. CAB shares distribution, habitats,[3] similarly varying shapes, and rostral[1] (basal) plate large and overlapping adjacent lateral plates, with NRB. This makes them difficult to distinguish in photographs.
DISTINCTION: These two species are highly variable. We have only found 3 characters to separate them in photographs: (1) The suture between a tergum and a scutum is straight in CAB and S-shaped in NRB; (2) the conical shell of the CAB is often inclined to one side;[4] and (3) The operculum of CAB is often slightly open showing black tissue.[4]
The CAB also differs by having a calcified base, a toothed margin of the shell plate tops around the operculum opening, a round or crenulated base without fingers, and a maximum diameter of 2.5 cm (1 in) usually 1 cm (0.4 in).
HOST: The invasive Green Crab, Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758)
OTHER NAMES: Shore Crab, Common Shore Crab, European Green Crab
DISTINCTIONS: Carapace up to 9.0 cm (3.5 in) long and 21.0 cm (8.3 in) wide but reaches 71.3 cm (28.1 in) outside its native range. Carapace pentagonal with 5 short teeth along the rim behind each eye, three undulations between the eyes that protrude beyond the eyes, merus[5] of hind (4th) leg straight.
DATA: iNaturalist #34688893
IMPORTANCE: As far as we can determine, this represents a new Symbiont Host Record.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[6,7,9,10] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[6,8,9,11]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [6]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [7]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [8]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [9]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [10]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [11]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Barnes, H. and H. T. Powell. 1953. The growth of Balanus balanoides and B. crenatus under varying conditions of submersion. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 32: 107-127.
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. New Host Record of Northern Rock Barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus, 1767), on the Green Crab, Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758), by the shore at Dunure, Scotland, UK. iNaturalist, Research Quality Report #34688893, 21 October (open access) [436]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019c. New host record of the Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818), off Dauphin Island, Alabama. iNaturalist #34208731, Research Quality Report, 11 October (open access) [433]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Large external plate at bottom of pentagon-shaped operculum opening. Its overlap with adjacent lateral (side) plates is a very good morphological character except with CAB (see largest barnacle in Figure. Center of crab top of a column of 4 barnacles.).
[2]See around base of largest barnacle in Figure
[3]mostly lower intertidal vs. upper intertidal
[4]More useful in groups of this barnacle.
[5]Merus is the first long segment off the “shoulder” shown in the Figure. It is the 4th segment proximally from the distal tip of the leg.

Fotos / Sonidos

Square

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Diciembre 26, 2018 03:42 PM -05

Descripción

NUMBERS: 20121226; AAM-AAES114856
SPECIES: Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)
DISTINCTIONS: see iNaturalist #34208731
HOST: Calico Crab, Hepatus epheliticus (Linnaeus, 1763),
DISTINCTIONS: Walking crab[1] with a nearly round, white-to-tan carapace[2] decorated in large red blotches with dark margins. Claws broad and cover the crab’s “face” in a characteristic pose. Carapace width up to 7.6 cm (3 in).
LOCALITY: Cumberland Island, Georgia (USA)
DATE: 26 December 2012
PHOTOGRAPH: by Fred Whitehead, https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/Stock-Images/Rights-Managed/AAM-AAES114856. Trade-marked photograph open access. Used here for Scientific confirmation only.
DATA: iNaturalist #34422946
COMMENTS: see our iNaturalist #34208731 for additional details about this barnacle.
IMPORTANCE: As far as we can determine, this represents a New Host Record.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES: (also see iNaturalist #34208731, #34325071)
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. New host record of the Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818), off Dauphin Island, Alabama. iNaturalist, Research Quality Report #34208731, 11 October (open access) [433]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. Another Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamark, 1818) at Sanibel Island, Florida (USA). Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #34325071, 13 October (open access) [434]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019c. A New Host, Calico Crab, Hepatus epheliticus (Linnaeus, 1763), for the Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), at Cumberland Island, Georgia (USA). Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #34422946, 15 October (open access) [435]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Hind (5th or last) leg, as previous legs and not paddle-shaped (as swimming crabs).
[2]Carapace = upper shell

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NUMBER: 20180927
SPECIES: Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)
DISTINCTIONS: see iNaturalist #34208731
LOCALITY: Sanibel Island, Florida (USA)
DATE: 27 September 2018
HABITAT: washed up on a beach
HOST: Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamark, 1818); also see iNaturalist #34208731
DISTINCTIONS: see iNaturalist #34208731 (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019a)
COLLECTION: Red Tide mass mortality of sea life
PHOTOGRAPHS: Anonymous (2018)
DATA: iNaturalist #34325071
COMMENTS: see our iNaturalist #34208731 for additional details on this barnacle and host.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[1,2,4,5] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[1,3,4,6]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [1]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [2]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [3]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [4]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [5]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [6]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES: (also see iNaturalist #34208731)
Anonymous. 2018. A sad day at my favorite beach. Dina’s Wildlife Adventures, 27 Sept, https://dinascitywildlife.com/tag/crabs/
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. New host record of the Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818), off Dauphin Island, Alabama. iNaturalist, Research Quality Report #34208731, 11 October (open access) [433]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. Another Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamark, 1818) at Sanibel Island, Florida (USA). Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #34325071, 13 October (open access) [434]

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NUMBER: 19690708; OTHER NUMBERS: DI-1 to 8
SPECIES: Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)
DISTINCTIONS: A rather large (up to 12.0 cm diameter), conical- to flattened-conical shaped acorn barnacle. Exterior of plates smooth. Eight plates occur instead of the 6 of other epibionic barnacles. However, only 6 plates are obvious and “slight violence” is required to separate the 3 plates of the rostral ‘plate’ (Darwin, 1854).
LOCALITY: west of canal, ocean side of Dauphin Island, Alabama
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 30°13’51” N, 88°5’44” W (30.2309, -88.0955)
DATE: 8 July 1969
HABITAT: beside a large, submerged sand bar
DEPTH: 4-7 m BOTTOM: sand VISABILITY: 2.5-3.8 m
HOST: Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamark, 1818)
This barnacle was thought to be mostly a symbiont of sea turtles, particularly the Loggerhead Turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). However, Cheang et al. (2013) synonymized the generalist Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, C. patula (Ranzani, 1818), with C. testudinaria. If this is correct, the barnacle is also symbiotic on decapods, gastropods, stomatopods, sea snakes, crocodiles, alligators, and manatees.
Negreiros-Fransozo et al. (1995) found C. patula on the Dana Swimcrab, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, but not on the Speckled Swimming Crab in Brazil. Sandoval and Wroblewski (2019) stated Mantelatto et al. (2003) had reported C. patula from the Speckled Swimming Crab; however, that is not correct. Costa et al. (2010) reported C. patula on this host from Brazil. Their C. patula was most likely C. testudinaria; therefore, our record may just be the second report.
Williams and Bunkley-Williams (2016) reported the Ornate Blue Crab, Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, as a possible[1] new host of this barnacle and also the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, as a host in Puerto Rico. Samples of both infested crab species were deposited in the Invertebrate Collection, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico.[2]
DISTINCTIONS: light green spots on a darker, greenish-brown background. Rostrum[3] has 4 teeth with the middle 2 more widely separated than outer 2. There are 2 sharp spines in carpus.[4] The hind legs are paddle-shaped (see Figure for all).
COLLECTION: Dauphin Island Conservation Laboratory shrimp boat and trawl. EHW on board.
DATA: iNaturalist #34208731
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[5,6,8,9] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[5,7,8,10]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [5]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [6]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [7]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [8]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [9]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [10]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Cheang, C. C., L. M. Tsang, K. H. Chu, I.-J. Cheng, and B. K. K. Chan. 2013. Host-specific Phenotypic Plasticity of the Turtle Barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria: A widespread generalist rather than a specialist. PLoS ONE 8(3): e57592. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057592
Costa, T. M., R. A. Christofolett, and M. A. Amaro-Pinheiro. 2010. Epibionts on Arenaeus cribrarius (Brachyura: Portunidae) from Brazil. Zoologica 27: 387-394. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/zool/v27n3/10.pdf
Darwin, C. 1854. A monograph on the sublass Cirripedia, with figures of all the species. The Balanidae (or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidae, etc., etc., etc. Ray Society, London. 684 pp.
Mantelatto, F., J. O’Brian, and R. Biagi. 2003. Parasites and symbionts of crabs from Ubatuba, Bay, So Paulo State, Brazil. Comparative Parasitology 70: 211-214. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237463355_Parasites_and_Symbionts_of_Crabs_from_Ubatuba_Bay_Sao_Paulo_State_Brazil
Negreiros-Fransozo, M. L.; T. M. Costa and A. Fransozo. 1995. Epibiosis and molting in two species of Callinectes (Decapoda: Portunidae) from Brazil. Revista Biologia Tropical 43: 257-264.
Sandoval, A. and T. Wroblewski. 2019. Arenaeus cribrarius Speckled Swimming Crab. Animal Diversity Web, https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Arenaeus_cribrarius/#ACE47915-6979-47EA-B71E-3D925AFC4B94
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2016. Some diseases, parasites, and epibionts of lobsters, crabs, isopods, and copepods in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Keynote Address. Mini-simposio de “Parásitos y enfermedades en Crustáceos”, para ser realizado dentro de la X Reunión Nacional Alejandro Villalobos (XRNAV) http://www.rnav.unam.mx/. Abstract Volume [374]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. New host record of the Symbiotic Acorn Barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Speckled Swimming Crab, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818), off Dauphin Island, Alabama. iNaturalist, Research Quality Report #34208731, 11 October (open access) [433]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Mantelatto et al. (2003) reported this association with C. patula in Brazil; [2]does not issue museum numbers; [3]front center of upper shell (carapace); [4]segment after claws.

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Mapache Procyon lotor

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Septiembre 1, 2019

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NUMBER: 20190901
SPECIES: Northern Raccoon, Procyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758)
OTHER NAMES: raccoon, coon, common raccoon
DISTINCTIONS: Size of a small dog; stout, bear-shaped body; prominent black face mask; long, ringed, furry tail.
SUBSPECIES: Florida Raccoon, Procyon lotor elucus Nelson, 1898, was the only subspecies genetically recognized in Florida by Cullingham et al. (2008). Trujillo and Hoffman (2017) synonymized our local Ten-thousand Islands Raccoon, P. l. marinus Nelson, 1930, with what they called “Mainland Florida Raccoon,” P. l. elucus, based on genetics. One-way-or-another, the local raccoon is P. l. elucus.
NUMBER, SIZE: 1, adult
DATE: 1 September 2019
TIME [DURATION]: 3:30 pm, 10 minutes
LOCALITY: unnamed road off Lely Palms Drive, Lely Palms, Naples, Florida 34113
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26º6’24.94” N, 81º42’48.83” W (26.106928, -81.713565)
REPORT TO FACILITY: We immediately reported this incident to the main office of our facility, but they apparently had no concept of the seriousness of rabies. I doubt they reported it to any agency. They issued no warning to their patrons. They had no appreciation of the situation. “Oh, maybe it will just go away.” Right.
REPORTED TO: Collier County Health Department, Info.DOHCollier@flhealth.gov, 7 pm, 1 September 2019. They answered 3:40 pm, 9 September 2019.
DATA REPORT: iNaturalist #33800896
BEHAVIOR: We observed an adult raccoon behaving erratically in Lely Palms Community. It was standing in the middle of the road. As EHW approached, the animal slowly moved into a small greenhouse. When he attempted to photograph, it came out directly at him. It was docile, unsteady on its feet, and moved slowly. EHW quickly moved out of its path. Then it headed for our car (Fig. D) where LBW was sitting, but veered off and moved down the road (Figs. B,C). Finally crawled under a car in the parking lot. A few minutes later, it moved onto the northeast corner of the pedestrian trail around Fish Tail Lake. Its movements remained slow and unstable.
PHOTOGRAPHS: EHW took the photos. He tried to take close-ups of the animal in the greenhouse and coming out right at him, but these did not turn out.
DANGERS: Raccoons do not usually bite or scratch humans unless cornered. They do carry diseases, other than rabies, which are dangerous to humans. Being out in the day can be normal, but slowness, instability, and confusion are indicators of rabies or canine distemper. Raccoons are the most common animal reported infected in Florida (26/60 in 1st 9 months of 2019). Northern Raccoons are infected by rabies more than any other animal in the USA. However, the strain in bats has killed more humans. The first human death diagnosed as the strain of rabies from Northern Raccoons occurred in March of 2003 (Silverstein et al., 2003).
IMPORTANCE: Our report of probable rabies was the first in Collier County for 2019.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Cullingham, C. I., C. J. Kyle, B. A. Pond, and B. N. White. 2008. Genetic structure of raccoons in eastern North America based on mtDNA: implications for subspecies designation and rabies disease dynamics. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86: 947–958. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Catherine_Cullingham/publication/233703567_Genetic_structure_of_raccoons_in_Eastern_North_America_based_on_mtDNA_implications_for_subspecies_designation_and_rabies_disease_dynamics/links/0c96052812282223e5000000.pdf
Nelson, E. W. 1930. Four new raccoons from the keys of southern Florida. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection 82(8): 1-12, illus. July 10.
NEW. 2015 (revision). Raccoon. New World Encyclopedia. https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/raccoon#cite_note-42
Silverstein, M. A., C. D. Salgado, S. Bassin, T. P. Bleck, M. B. Lopes, B. M. Farr, S. R. Jenkins, D. C. Sockwell, J. S. Marr, and G. B. Miller. 2003. First human death associated with raccoon rabies. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 52(45): 1102–1103. PMID 14614408
Trujillo, A. L. and E. A. Hoffman. 2017. Uncovering discordance between taxonomy and evolutionary history in Florida raccoons. Systematics and Biodiversity 15: 74-85.
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Close observation of a probable, rabid Florida Raccoon, Procyon lotor elucus Bangs, 1898, in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #33800896, 3 October (open access) [432]

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NUMBER: 20190923
OTHER NUMBERS: see our other Southern Black Racer Reports EHW 20190313-2 (iNaturalist #21429346) and EHW 20190315-2 (iNaturalist #21429346)
SPECIES: Eastern Racer, Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, 1758
SUBSPECIES: Southern Black Racer, Coluber constrictor priapus Dunn and Wood, 1939
DATE: 23 September 2019
LOCALITY: Maplewood, Naples, Florida
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°6’35.388” N, 81°43’19.596” W (26.10983, -81.72211)
PHOTOGRAPH: by Pamela Elaine Venet
DATA: iNaturalist #33719214
COMMENTS: Many species and numbers of wild predators of Giant Toads (goannas, freshwater crocodiles, tiger snake, red-bellied black snakes, death adders, dingoes, quolls, etc.) have succumbed, sometimes in mass die-offs, from toad poisonings in Australia (Shine, 2010; Bochenski, 2015). In the continual USA most deaths have occurred in domestic dogs in Florida and Texas. In Puerto Rico, our first dog, Ita, attacked a Giant Toad and was only saved by our eccentric veterinarian in the middle of the night. Dog poisonings by Giant Toads are common in Puerto Rico.
In their native habitat and most introduced populations, Giant Toads are mostly found in urban areas, not in the wild. Thus, few wild predators are exposed (Wilson and Johnson, 2018). Zug et al. (1975) summarized the known predators of introduced Giant Toads around the world. No mention was made of deaths of any predator. Wilson et al. (2011) reported the first instance of Giant Toads causing mortality in naturally occurring predators in the Americas (Jamaican Boa, Epicrates subflavus). That was the only report of wild predator death by introduced Giant Toads in the Americas. No other records have been published (S. A. Johnson, Univ. Florida, pers. comm., 2019; R. Shine, Univ. Sydney, pers. comm., 2019; G. S. Wilson, Univ. West Indies, pers. comm., 2019).
In Australia, Giant Toads occur in wild areas, thus exposing wild predators. This probably explains their greater diversity and numbers of wild predator mortalities. To our knowledge the Southern Black Racer has not been previously recorded as a victim of Giant Toads.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Bochenski, N. 2015. 80 facts to mark 80 years of Cane Toads. Brisbane Times 26 June. https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/queensland/80-facts-to-mark-80-years-of-cane-toads-20150625-ghxwo9.html
Shine, R., 2010. The ecological impact of invasive Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) in Australia. Quarterly Review of Biology 85, no. 3: 253-291.
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. First record in continental North America (Naples, Florida) of a native predator (Southern Black Racer, Coluber constrictor priapus) killed by toxins while trying to consume an introduced, poisonous Giant Toad, Bufo horribilis. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org #???, 1 October (open access) [432]
Wilson, A. and S. A. Johnson. 2018. The cane or “bufo” toad (Rhinella marina) in Florida. U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, WEC387. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/UW/UW43200.pdf
Wilson, G. S., S. E. Koenig, R. van Veen, E. Miersma, and D. C. Rudolph. 2011. Cane toads a threat to West Indian wildlife: Mortality of Jamaican boas attributable to toad ingestion. Biological Invasions 13: 55-60.
Zug, G. R., E. Lindgren, and J. R. Pippet. 1975. Distribution and ecology of the Marine Toad, Bufo marinus, in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Science 29: 31-50. v29n1-31-50.pdf

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Esperanza Cabeza de Cono Neoconocephalus triops

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ernesthwilliams

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Julio 9, 2019

Descripción

NUMBER: 20190709
SPECIES: Broad-tipped Conehead (Katydid), Neoconocephalus triops (Linnaeus, 1758)
NUMBER; LENGTH; DEVELOPMENT; SEX: 1; total length (anterior head to wing tips) 5.8 cm (2.28 in); adult; female
COLLECTION: Freshly dead in alcove of building
DATE: 9 July 2019; DATE SUBMITTED: 22 September 2019
LOCALITY: 1459 Ridge Street, Naples, Florida 34103
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°11’4.992” N, 81°47’32.28” W (26.184720, -81.792300)
DATA SUBMITTED: iNature #33199875
COMMENTS: for more details see another Broad-tipped Conehead record (EHW-20190917, Pub-430, iNature #33168292).
REFERENCE:
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Slight length record for Broad-tipped Conehead (katydid), Neoconocephalus triops (Linnaeus, 1758), in Lely Palms, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org #33168292, 21 September (open access) [430]

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Esperanza Cabeza de Cono Neoconocephalus triops

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ernesthwilliams

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Septiembre 17, 2019

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NUMBER: 20190917
SPECIES: Broad-tipped Conehead, Neoconocephalus triops (Linnaeus, 1758)
OTHER NAMES: Broad-tipped Conehead Katydid, Three-eyed Katydid1
DISTINCTIONS: Head cone-shaped (Fig. A), anterior cone (or fastigium) of head is wider than long (Figs. B,C); fastigium with narrow black band along ventral tip1 (Fig. B), fastigium with no hooked down sharp point2 and no gap between fastigium and face2; ovipositor about as-long-as the hind femur and shape as shown by Linn and Gillett-Kaufman (2019: Fig. 8; our Fig. D); body plain brown or green, body not highly elevated (Fig. A).
NUMBER; LENGTH; DEVELOPMENT; SEX: 1; length (head, thorax, & abdomen) 3.7 cm (1.48 in), ovipositor 2.2 cm (0.86 in), total (length with ovipositor) 5.9 cm (2.32 in), total length (anterior head to wing tips) 6.8 cm (2.68 in); adult; female
LOCALITY: between Villas 420 and 421 Lely Palms Community, Naples, Florida
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°6’27.4931” N, 81°42’54.8352” W (26.107637, -81.715232)
COLLECTION: small plastic bag
BEHAVIOR: Flew up from mowed grass. Landed close by with abdomen sticking up in grass. Looked much like a blade of grass. Exactly as described by Linn and Gillett-Kaufman (2019).
LENGTH RANGE: Adult Female 5.1-6.7 cm (2.01-2.64 in), adult male 4.3-6.0 cm (1.69-2.36 in) (Linn and Gillett-Kaufman, 2019).
DISTRIBUTION: Southern USA from coast-to-coast. Most abundant in Florida and along Gulf Coastal areas (Linn and Gillett-Kaufman, 2019: Fig. 2). Greater and Lesser Antilles of Caribbean and Trinidad; Central America (Panama) and South America (Guyana, Panama, Peru) and Galapagos Islands (Walker and Greenfield, 1983).
DATA REPORT: iNaturalist #33168292 iNaturalist had no reports around Naples.
IMPORTANCE: Our specimen is slightly larger (6.8 cm) than the record length (6.7 cm).
DAMAGE: They are not known to harm crops. A swarm of millions descended upon downtown Huston, Texas, to the irritation of businesses, in mid-November 1983 (Linn and Gillett-Kaufman, 2019; Reinhold, 1983). May bite when handled.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Lin, S. and J. L. Gillett-Kaufman. 2019 (revised). Neoconocephalus triops. Featured Creatures. University of Florida. EENY 634. First published 2015. https://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/MISC/Neoconocephalus_triops.htm#dist
Reinhold, R. 1983. Houston is at five plagues and counting. New York Times, 13 November 1983, Section 1, P. 26.
Walker TJ, Greenfield MD. 1983. Songs and systematics of Caribbean Neoconocephalus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 109: 357-389.
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Slight length record for Broad-tipped Conehead (katydid), Neoconocephalus triops (Linnaeus, 1758), in Lely Palms, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist #33168292, 21 September (open access) [430]
FOOTNOTE:
1Because the black tip of the fastigium looks like a middle, third eye.
2Differs from the similar and sympatric Hook-faced Conehead, Pyrgocorypha uncinata (Harris, 1841).

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ernesthwilliams

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Junio 26, 2019

Descripción

NUMBER: 20190626
SPECIES: Northern Curlytail Lizard, Leiocephalus carinatus Gray, 1827
DISTINCTIONS: Characteristic tail curling, dorsal scales keeled and pointed, mostly terrestrial, medium-sized lizard.
SUBSPECIES: Little-Bahama Curlytail Lizard, Leiocephalus carinatus armouri Barbour and Shreve, 1935 (hereafter Curlytail)
UNCOMMON SW FLORIDA
NUMBER; DEVELOPMENT: 5; 2 adults (Figs. C,D), 1 juvenile (Figs. A,B), 2 hatchlings
LOCALITY: Walmart Supercenter #3417, 6650 Collier Blvd, Naples, FL 34114, 2 separate adults in the bushes in front; a juvenile and 2 hatchlings in the back of the plants section
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°3’26.40” N, 81°41’49.31” W (26.0573, -81.6970)
DATE, TIME, DURATION: 26 June 2019, 2:38 pm, ~15 min. A week later, these specimens were gone. We have been to this site around once a week for the last year and only saw them this once.
DISTRIBUTION: The subspecies was endemic to Little Bahama Bank, Grand Bahama Island, and Abaco Islands, in the northern Bahamas. The species is native to the Bahamas, Cayman Islands, and Cuba.
The subspecies was introduced into southeast Florida and spread from central Broward County to central Martin County. More recently, almost to Orange County and to Islamorada in the Florida Keys. The highest density is still in SE Florida around Palm Beach County and in the Florida Keys. These 2 populations seem a bit disjunct. Curlytails prefer coastal areas (iNaturalist, 2019).
We had seen many Curlytails in SE Florida, but we had not seen them in Naples, or SW Florida, either before or since our present record. They do not appear very common in SW Florida.
DAMAGE: The Curlytail replaces all other lizards some places in Florida. They kill and consume Brown Anoles (another non-indigenous species) in Florida. There is some disagreement in the popular literature if the Curlytail is invasive, dangerous, or damaging to the environment. Curlytails are popular pets, eat Brown Anoles, but also native Green Anoles, Anolis carolinensis Voigt in Cuvier and Voigt, 1832. They are most definitely invasive and a serious threat to Florida’s environment.
EXTINCTION
Global Warming has been predicted to cause stronger hurricanes that will cause extinctions (e.g., Hass et al., 2012). Most of the hurricane/extinction literature concerns the threat of hurricanes to endangered species. The Bahamian Nuthatch (subspecies/species) was probably made extinct by Hurricane Dorian (GrrlScientist, 2019; Mandelbaum, 2019). In 2008, as-few-as 2 specimens existed (Mandelbaum, 2019); therefore, this bird was already really extinct. Many thousands of Curytails in vibrant, stable populations were equally extinguished by Dorian and they were not an endangered subspecies.
Schoener et al. (2001) found prey lizards could become “extinct”1 on Bahamian islands following catastrophic hurricanes. However, these were really only extirpations, not extinctions.1 Also, the “extinctions” only occurred on populations reduced by experimental predator introductions (Schoener et al., 2001). Hardly a natural situation.
Two severe hurricanes (scientifically fortuitously) passing over a Brown Anole, Anolis sangri Duméril and Bibron, 1837, study area did not remove all the study animals (Donihue et al., 2018). However, the impacts of Hurricane Dorian must have been more damaging to Curlytails in the northern Bahamas. This is because Curlytails are usually coastal, not generally distributed; mostly-terrestrial, not arboreal; the previous mentioned hurricanes only lasted for a few hours, not many days; the islands were not covered with water for days; and almost every bush and tree were not flattened, topped-out, or submerged.
Losos et al. (2003) found Brown Anole eggs remained viable in seawater for 6 hours, but the submersion caused by Dorian was much longer. They also found a direct impact by a Cat. III or IV hurricane in the Bahamas removes all anoles and their eggs. Dorian was a Cat. V and Cat IV hurricane in the northern Bahamas.
We do not expect Curlytails survived. Should any remain, they will quickly starve to death as all their prey items had been blown or washed away and their habitats destroyed. Also, any few surviving would face genetic bottleneck extinction. To our knowledge, no hurricane has ever before eliminated a non-endangered, endemic animal.
RE-ESTABLISHMENT: This Curlytail subspecies was introduced and established in Florida. Whether they are now the same as Curlytails in their native range, or have become something different, is not known. However, these now alien Curlytails are the only hope to reintroduce Curlytails to their native islands. Introductions from Florida could conceivably re-establish Curytails in the northern Bahamas.
PHOTOS: LBW photoed an adult (Figs. C,D); EHW photoed a juvenile (Fig. A,B)
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,2,3,5,6 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams2,4,5,7
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 2Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 3Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 4Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 5920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 6e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 7Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Donihue, C. M., A. Herrel, A. C. Fabre, A. Kamath, A. J. Geneva, T. W. Schoener, J. J. Kolbe, J. B. Losos1. 2018. Hurricane-induced selection on the morphology of an island lizard. Nature1 560(7716): 88-91.
Engeman, R., E. Jacobson, M. L. Avery, W. E. Meshaka, Jr. 2011. The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in Florida with a focus on prominent species: A review. Current Zoology 57: 599−612.
GrrlScientist. 2019. The perfect storm: Hurricane Dorian and people may annihilate three bird species. https://www.forbes.com/sites/grrlscientist/2019/09/03/the-perfect-storm-hurricane-dorian-and-people-may-annihilate-three-bird-species/#459f68e52132
Hass, T., J. Hyman, B. X. Semmens. 2012. Climate change, heightened hurricane activity, and extinction risk for an endangered tropical seabird, the black-capped petrel Pterodroma hasitata. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 454: 251-261.
iNaturalist. 2019. Northern Curlytail Lizard, Leiocephalus carinatus. https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/39280-Leiocephalus-carinatus
Losos, J. B., T. W. Schoener, and D. A. Spiller. 2003. Effect of immersion in seawater on egg survival in the lizard Anolis sangria. Oecologia 137:160-162. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.661.5038&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Mandelbaum, R. F. 2019. Hurricane Dorian may have caused a critically endangered bird to go extinct. Gizmodo, Conservation, 4 September, https://earther.gizmodo.com/hurricane-dorian-may-have-caused-a-critically-endangere-1837849857
Meshaka, W. E., Jr., H. T. Smith, R. M. Engeman, C. L. Dean, J. A. Moore and W. E. O’Brien. 2005. The geographically contiguous and expanding coastal range of the Northern Curlytail Lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus armouri) in Florida. Southeastern Naturalist 4: 521-526.
Moore, S. L., J. A. Moore, and S. L. Richardson. 2009. A new population of Northern Curlytail Lizard, Leiocephalus carinatus armouri in Fort Pierce, Florida. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 50: 21-25.
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Little-Bahama Curlytail Lizard, Leiocephalus carinatus armouri Barbour and Shreve, 1935, seems uncommon in SW Florida; suffered the first non-endangered, endemic subspecies extinction by a hurricane; and possibly could be re-established. Research Quality Report #???, iNaturalist.org, 18 September (open access) [429]
FOOTNOTES:
1The authors, reviewers, and Editors of Nature did not understand the meaning of extinction.

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Hongo Jaula Roja Clathrus crispus

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ernesthwilliams

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Agosto 6, 2019

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NUMBER: 20190806
SPECIES: Caribbean Stinkhorn1, Clathrus crispus (Turpin, 1820) (hereafter CS)
NUMBER; DURATION: 21; staggered fruiting over 51 days, usually 1 at a time (Fig. A, new center, deteriorating right), a few times 2 (Fig. B), once 3 (Fig. C), observed and/or photographed 3-5 times a day
DISTINCTIONS: Lattice usually red in color, countersunk around the openings, and has supposedly definitive "coronas" around each of the openings in the lattice, which appear radially grooved or as corrugated rims (Figs. A-C).
SIMILAR SPECIES: Latticed Stinkhorn, Clathrus ruber Micheli ex Person, 1801, (hereafter LS) aka Basket Stinkhorn, Red Cage (translation of scientific name), or Witch’s Heart. This fungus can be all but identical in its morphologies with CS except the lattice external surfaces are flat or wrinkled, and edges of the openings are straight (parallel), not countersunk. The coronas of CS can be much less distinct than the literature would have one believe. Confused identifications between these species are entirely understandable. The only consistence morphologically distinguishing difference appears to be the countersunk (CS) vs. straight (LS) sides of the openings. LS is often reported from Florida, but these are apparently misidentifications of CS.
HABITAT: Two small openings between low bushes in partial tree shade. Surfaces well-drained and covered in wood mulch (Fig. D).
LOCATION: unnamed road off 1000 Lely Palms Drive, Naples, FL 34113
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°6’27.28” N, 82°42’52.43” W (26.107578, -82.714564)
DATA REPORT: iNaturalist #32416406
DISTRIBUTION: It is of New World origin now occurring in the Caribbean, Florida (USA), and Central and South America. The literature is somewhat irregular in the treatment of CS and LS, but, in general, CS is considered tropical, and LS temperate. CS “appears with some frequency in Florida” (Kuo, 2006b).
LS is native to the Mediterranean area but has been spread around the world apparently in mulch. Records in Florida (USA), the Caribbean (including Puerto Rico2), and Japan were based on misidentifications (Kuo, 2006a,b, 2011). All “LS” specimens or photos we have examined from Florida were actually CS. We will eventually examine specimens of ‘LS’ at the Florida Museum of Natural History (Rosanne Healy, Fungi Collection Manager, pers. comm.).
BEHAVIOR: Fruiting bodies that emerge during periods with low moisture are slow to emerge, stunted, and incomplete. Adequate moisture appears to be necessary for proper fruit development. We observed these four times.
ODOR: Stinkhorns’ smell of rotting flesh attracts the flies that spread the spores. It probably also protects the fruiting body from predation. Strangely, EHW is not able to smell this odor (specific anosmia). Otherwise his ability to sense odors seems normal. We have not seen the condition previously mentioned for this fungus.
CORRECTIONS: [I] Anonymous (2018) reported LS has occurred near the headquarters building at the Rookery Bay Reserve, Naples, Florida, for several years. We have not seen this fungus in place, but their published photograph (Anonymous, 2018) is of a CS. [II] Scot.zona (2010) reported LS from Miami, Florida, but the accompanying photograph is of CS. [III] iNaturalist Observation #25896803 LS = CS, secret location (using EDT USA time zone), possibly Florida(?).
DANGER: The vulva “egg” (Figs. A & E, 1 egg; Fig. F, paired eggs) is reported to be eatable and is pickled raw in Europe and fried in China. Fables and folklore claim the fruit body “receptacle” is poisonous, but this is not supported by evidence. Its smell of rotted meat is enough to discourage tasting. We have not braved a taste test.
PHOTOGRAPHS: by LBW and EHW
OTHER SPECIES: Spores are spread by flies. We only saw and photographed (probably) the Green Bottle Fly, Lucilia coeruleiviridis Macquart, 1855 (Fig. A).
IMPORTANCE: This report attempts to distinguish between the CS and the LS to enable more accurate reports; suggests a common name for C. crispus; corrects 3 former identifications, and reports the first Stinkhorn Specific Anosmia.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,3,4,6,7 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams3,5,6,8
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 3Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 4Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 5Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 6Villa Marittima, Lely Palms Community, 920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 7e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 8Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Anonymous. 2018. Red Cage Fungus [sic]. Stewardship Tips. 31 August. https://rookerybay.org/news/stewardship-tips/1693-red-cage-fungus.html
Kuo, M. 2006a. Clathrus ruber. MushroomExpert.com Web Site. https://www.mushroomexpert.com/clathrus_ruber.html
Kuo, M. 2006b. Clathrus crispus. MushroomExpert.com Web Site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/clathrus_crispus.html
Kuo, M. 2011. Stinkhorns: Phallaceae and Clathraceae. MushroomExpert.com web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/phallaceae.html
Maldoado-Ramirez, S. L. and H. Torres-Pratts. 2005. First report of Clathrus cf crispus (Basidiomycota: Clathraceae) occurring on decomposing leaves of Rhizophora mangle in Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science 41: 357-359.
Scot.zona. 2010. Clathrus ruber [sic], wild, home, South Miami, Florida, USA. It smells like decaying flesh. Photograph taken 21 July. https://www.flickr.com/photos/12017190@N06/5662397508
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Occurrences of Caribbean Stinkhorn (suggested common name), Clathrus crispus (Turpin, 1820) in Naples, Florida; resolving identification confusion between it and Latticed Stinkhorn, Clathrus ruber Micheli ex Person, 1801, in Florida; corrections; and first specific anosmia. Research Quality Report #???, iNaturalist.org, 9 September (open access) [428]
FOOTNOTES:
1Suggested new Common Name
2We never saw it there.

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ernesthwilliams

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Septiembre 2, 2019

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NUMBER: 20190902
SPECIES: Io Moth, Automeris io (Fabricius, 1775)
DISTINGUISHING: Green with dorsal toxic bristles, thin lateral stripes of red against white (Figs. A,B).
OTHER NAMES: Peacock Moth
NUMBER; SIZE: 37, 32 on 1 limb (Fig. C), 5 on another, 1 used leaf nest (Fig. E); 4.2 cm (1.7 in)
STAGE: Third Instar, early green stage (still gregarious)
DATE: 2 September 2019
TIME [DURATION]: First noticed at 9:30 am, photographed, and left them on the plant.
LOCALITY: our front yard, Lely Palms, 920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, Florida 34113-8943
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26º6’26.0” N, 81º42’55.1 W (26.10721, -81.715318)
HABITAT: urban yard in urban area with wild woods nearby.
HOST SPECIES: Tropical Hisbiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linnaeus, 1753, aka Chinese Hibiscus (did not originate in China), Chinese Rose (not a rose), Red Hibiscus, Shoeblackplant. This species is not known in the wild. Origin was probably in tropical Asia, but not China. New Preferred Host Record (damage, Fig. D). This is not too surprising as wild Woolly Rose-mallow, Hibiscus lasiocarpos Cavanilles, 1787, is a local preferred host and is in the same genus. Tuskes et al. (1996) listed Hibiscus sp. as a host in south Florida. The used leaf nest (Fig. D) confirms the life cycle can be completed on this plant.
CULTIVAR: ‘Double Orange’
DATA REPORT: iNaturalist No. 32218295
BEHAVIOR: Little reaction to our moving the limbs.
DANGERS: EHW’s fingers were about an inch from multiple, severe stings. The lightest touch triggers a sting. Stings cause intense pain for hours or sometimes days. Systematic reactions are rare. The effect of many multiple stings has not been evaluated. The toxin has not been characterized (Hall, 2014). Susan Kolterman (pers. comm., Key Largo) firmly touched a specimen without being stung.
OTHER SPECIES: Four Hardy Hibiscus hybrids, within 10 feet of the infested plant, had no caterpillars.
PHOTOGRAPHS: LBW
COMMENTS: EHW was pruning a small branch. LBW told him, he was holding the branch near many attached toxic caterpillars. EHW responded “Get your camera.”
IMPORTANCE: This urban non-indigenous host has not been listed as a preferred host but seems to be serving as one (Figs. A-E).
STATUS: The number of these moths in the USA Gulf states have been declining since the 1970s (Hall, 2014).
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Hall, D. W. 2014. Io moth, Automeris io (Fabricius) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. EENY-608 https://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/io_moth.htm
Tuskes, P. M., J. P. Tuttle, and M. M. Collins. 1996. The wild silk moths of North America. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 250 pp.
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Io Moth, Automeris io (Fabricius, 1775), on a New Primary Host, Tropical Hisbiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linnaeus, 1753, ‘Double Orange’ cultivar, in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report #???, iNaturalist.org, 6 September (open access) [428]

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ernesthwilliams

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Junio 19, 2019 12:45 PM UTC

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NUMBER: 20190619
SPECIES: Zebra Longwing (butterfly), Heliconius charitonius (Linnaeus, 1767)
DISTINCTIONS: Longer and narrower wings than local butterflies. Distinctive white to yellow narrow horizonal lines across wings (Figs. A-C), red spots on under-wings near body.
SUBSPECIES: Florida Zebra Longwing1, Heliconius charitonius tuckeri Comstock and Brown, 1950.
NUMBER: 1, numerous others on, or flying around, shrub
DATE, TIME: 19 June 2019, 12:45 pm
TIME [DURATION]: Noon, 10 minutes photographing butterflies on a flowering bush in front.
LOCALITY: Clyde Butcher Gallery and Photographic Museum, Big Cypress National Preserve, 52388 Tamiami Trail East, Ochopee, Florida 34141 USA
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 25º51’18.00” N, 81º1’10.92” W (25.8550, -81.0197)
HABITAT: Urban-like yard with blooming shrubs closely surrounded by swamp
REPORTED TO: iNaturalist #32030234
BEHAVIOR: The photoed individual spent a lot of time perched. Many others of this subspecies were either on, or flying around, this host.
KNOWN DISTRBUTION: Throughout Florida and northern Bahamas. May stray north in the summer.
OTHER SPECIES: Other species of less photo-cooperative butterflies, American Alligator on bank beside trail (an idiot grabbed its tail), 2 Pig Frogs, Lithobates grylio (vocalizations only, did not record)
THREATS: Numbers have apparently been reduced by spraying of mosquito control agents in urban areas.
PHOTOGRAPHS: EHW
HOST FOR ADULT: EHW photographed this butterfly on White Sky Flower, Duranta repens Linnaeus, 1753, cultivar ‘alba’ (non-indigenous, commercial; Ward, 2010). Surprising plant at a “nature trail” type place.
COMMENTS: We have found this butterfly to be very common in south Florida. We also see it in central Florida.
IMPORTANCE: Numerous Florida Zebra Longwing Butterflies utilizing a non-indigenous, commercial host.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: We thank Susan F. Kolter, volunteer at the Dagny Johnson Key Largo Hammock Botanical State Park, for identifying the White Sky Flower.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Ward, D. B. 2010. Golden-dewdrop, Duranta erecta (Verbenaceae). No. 5. Native or not: Studies of Problematic Species. Palmeto 27: 10-12.
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Numerous Florida Zebra Longwing (butterflies)(suggested common name), Heliconius charitonius tuckeri Comstock and Brown, 1950, utilizing a non-indigenous, commercial host, White Sky Flower, Duranta repens Linnaeus, 1753, cultivar ‘alba’ in the Everglades. Research Quality Report #???, iNaturalist.org, 3 September (open access) [426]
FOOTNOTES: 1Suggested new common name.

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Sapo Gigante Rhinella horribilis

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Agosto 17, 2019

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NUMBER: 20190817
SPECIES: Giant Toad, Bufo horribilis Wiegmann, 1833 (partially following Acevedo-Rincó et al., 2016, and references within)
OTHER NAMES: Bufo marinus, Rhinella marina, Marine Toad, Cane Toad
NUMBER, SIZE: 1, 14 cm snout to vent length (photos A,B)
DESTINCTIONS: Any toad over 13 cm (5 in) in Florida is this large species. Has a very large, triangular paratiod gland behind eye and extending down sides of body (photo C), short, dorsally compressed (flattened) snout, ridges around eyes extend to a point on snout (photo D).
LOCALITY: 716 Saint Andrews Boulevard, Naples, FL 34113
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°6’8” N, 81°43’4” W (26.1022, -81.7178)
COLLECTION: fresh road kill
CONDITION: relatively intact except for compound fractures of hind legs
DATE, TIME: 17 August 2019, 11 am
DATA REPORT: Naturalist (Naturalist.org) Observation #31548501
PHOTOGRAPHS: by EHW and LBW
IMPORTANCE: Another record of a dangerous, invasive species.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Williams, E. H., Jr. and Lucy Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. A range extension for the Giant Toad, Bufo horribilis Wiegmann, 1833, in Naples, Florida. Is this “plague” spreading? iNature, Research Quality Report #28211739, 5 July 2019 (open access) [416]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and Lucy Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. Another record of a dangerous, invasive Giant Toad, Bufo horribilis, in Naples, Florida: iNature, Research Quality Report #, 26 August 2019 (open access) [425]

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ernesthwilliams

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Agosto 25, 2019

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NUMBER: 20190825
SPECIES: Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger Linnaeus,1758
SUBSPECIES: Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia Howell, 1919
DISTINCTIONS: Twice as large as local Gray Squirrels, tail nearly as long as remainder of body, some adults of this population have racoon-like facial markings
SIZE, SEX: medium-sized, unknown
VARIATION: Had a plainer face than others we have observed here.
DATE: 25 August 2019
TIME [DURATION]: 2:30 pm [na]
LOCALITY: In our interconnected back yards 2 doors to the south in a large Live Oak, Lely Palms, 912 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, Florida 34113. In between our 2 former observation sites here.
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26º6’25.1”, 81º42’53.4” (26.106964, -81.714836)
HABITAT: broad mowed lawn with scattered Slash Pines, Live Oaks, and other palms
REPORTED TO: Dr. Robert (Bob) Alan McCleery, Professor, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida. e-mailed, 4:30 pm, 25 August 2019
DATA REPORT: iNaturalist (iNaturalist.org) Observation #31506531
BEHAVIOR: Stayed very still on lower limb, until I approached closely, taking pictures. Moved slightly out and up limb. After many photos, ran up high in the tree and gave a long, loud series of alarm calls [kuk, kuk, kuk …].
IMPORTANCE: More records about a viable population of a threatened subspecies.
UNPHOTOED RECORD: 19 August 2019, 11:35 am, 1 medium-sized Big Cypress Fox Squirrel out our back door, 26º6’25”, 81º42’55” (26.1069, -81.7153), it went up tree and around far side, LBW went out to photo but squirrel was gone.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org #21205694, 13 March (open access) [405]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. Second specimen report of threatened Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org #27152332, 17 June (open access) [412]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019c. An established and viable population of threatened Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia Howell, 1919, in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org #30908314, 14 August (open access) [421]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019d. More records about a viable population of a threatened subspecies, Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org, 25 August (open access) [424]

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ernesthwilliams

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el pasado

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NUMBER: 20190727-2
SPECIES: Australian Herring, Arripis georgianus (Valenciennes, 1831)
DISTINCTIONS: Eyes large, width 1/5 of the head length. Body scales are slightly rough to touch. Body light green above and silvery below with vertical rows of golden spots on the upper sides, and tips of the caudal fin are black.
VARIATION: Some fish have lines of ovals instead of spots. Usually, but not always, the tops of the rows of golden spots coalesce into golden, narrow lines on the dorsal surface. Rarely, these become thicker, black, wavy bars as shown in our photo. Some fish have a caudal fin with a thin, black posterior margin; occasionally black blotches; or completely black. Are these expressions of partial melanism?
OTHER NAMES: Ruff, Tommy, Tommy Ruff, Australian Ruff. “Herring” is an inappropriate and confusing common name since it is not a clupeid or even related.
SIMILAR SPECIES: Australian Salmon, Arripis trutta (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801). It lacks the lines on the dorsal surface and is darker in color than the Australian Herring. “Salmon” is also an inappropriate and confusing name as it is not even related to salmonids.
EPIBIONT: Striped Gooseneck Barnacle, Conchoderma virgatum Spengler, 1789 (photo). Often called a parasite but actually filter feeder like most other barnacles (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1996, 2019a,b; iNaturalist #30986750).
LOCALITY: Busselton Jetty, 3L Busselton, Northwest Australia 6280, Australia http://www.busseltonjetty.com.au
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 33°38'12.84" S, 115°20'24.36" E (-33.6439, 115.3446)
DATE POSTED: 27 July 2019
COLLECTION METHOD: hook and line
PHOTOGRAPH: by Lachie Ramm
DISTRIBUTION: Endemic to the cool, southern coastal waters around Australia.
DATA REPORT: iNaturalist (iNaturalist.org) Observation #??? (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019c).
IMPORTANCE:
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: We thank Lachie Ramm for posting his photograph and Michael Dowgiallo for improving the photograph.
REFERENCES:
Williams, E. H., Jr. 1978. Conchoderma virgatum (Spengler) (Cirripedia, Thoracica) in association with Dinemoura latifolia (Steenstrup and Lutken) (Copepoda, Caligidea), a parasite of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrhynchus Rafinesque (Pisces, Chondrichthyes). Crustaceana 34: 109 111. [22]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. B. Williams. 1986. The first association of Conchoderma virgatum (Spengler)(Cirripedia: Thoracica) with a euryphodid copepod in the mouth of a fish. Galaxea 5: 209 211. [79] Google Scholar
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1996. Parasites of offshore, big game sport fishes of Puerto Rico and the western North Atlantic. Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 384 pp. (book). [also Caribbean Journal of Science Special Publication 9: www.caribjsci.org/publications.html; http://www.uprm.edu/biology/cjs/biggamefish.pdf] [190] [free online]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. New host, Australian Herring, Arripis georgianus (Valenciennes, 1831), and Australian Indian Ocean locality record for the Striped Gooseneck Barnacle, Conchoderma virgatum Spengler, 1789, off Busselton Jetty, Australia. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org, 16 August (open access) [422]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019c. Partial melanism in the Australian Herring, Arripis georgianus (Valenciennes, 1831) in southern Australia. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org, 19 August (open access) [423]

Fotos / Sonidos

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Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Julio 27, 2019 09:33 AM ADT

Descripción

NUMBER: 20190727
SPECIES: Striped Gooseneck Barnacle, Conchoderma virgatum Spengler, 1789
DISTINCTIONS: Most barnacles live near the surface while this one prefers mid-water, often mobile habitats. It occasionally attaches to wounds or hard parts of marine fishes (Photo), mammals, turtles, or snakes. Sometimes even to their associates or parasites (Williams, 1978, Williams and Williams, 1986). Often called a parasite but actually filter feeder like most other barnacles (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1996, 2019a).
SIMILAR SPECIES: Rabbit-ear Barnacle, Conchoderma atrium (Linnaeus, 1767) has 2 finger-shaped anterior projections (aka ‘ears’) lacking in C. virgatum and lacks the black stripes of C. virgatum (photo; Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1996). It rather commonly occurs attached to acorn barnacles on whales but rarely on fishes (Mignucci-Giannoni, 1998). Dulcic et al. (2015) summarized 12 species of fishes known to have had this epibiont.
HOST: Australian Herring, Arripis georgianus (Valenciennes, 1831)(photo). This is the first record of this barnacle attached to this fish.
LOCATION: One barnacle is attached in scar tissue in the midline at the insertion of dorsal fin and 2 barnacles in a hemorrhagic lesion in midline between the eyes (photo). The first barnacle could be attached to a denuded first dorsal spine, the second 2 appear deeply embedded and may be attached to the skull of the fish. This barnacle appears to prefer the security of attachment to hard parts; however, Dulcic et al. (2015) found it attached to the skin of a fish. The present lesions were not caused by the barnacles, but probably by a predator; however, Dulcic et al. (2015) thought abrasion by swaying barnacles expanded lesions. Others have suggested barnacles aid healing.
LOCALITY: Busselton Jetty, 3L Busselton, Northwest Australia 6280, Australia http://www.busseltonjetty.com.au
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 33°38'12.84" S, 115°20'24.36" E (-33.6439, 115.3446)
DATE POSTED: 27 July 2019
PHOTOGRAPH: by Lachie Ramm
DISTRIBUTION: Occurs in tropical and temperate seas worldwide but rarely on marine vertebrates. It is known from Australia, but this is the first record from western Australia and the Indian Ocean off Australia (ALA, 2019: map).
DATA REPORT: Naturalist (Naturalist.org) Observation #30986750
IMPORTANCE: The occurrence of this barnacle on a fish is both rare and generally unusual (Williams, 1978, Williams and Williams, 1986). The present record represents a New Host Record and a considerable Range Extension.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: We thank Lachie Ramm for posting his photograph and Michael Dowgiallo for improving the photograph.
REFERENCES:
ALA. 2019. Conchoderma virgatum (Spengler, 1789). Atlas of Living Australia. https://bie.ala.org.au/species/urn:lsid:biodiversity.org.au:afd.taxon:b1e16974-eb95-4f7c-9c79-a4bd66d0ad3a
Dulcic, J., B. Dragicevic, M. Despalatovic, I. Cvitkovic, D. Bojanic-Varezic and M. Štifanic. 2015. Lepadid barnacles found attached to a living Lobotes surinamensis (Pisces). Custaceana 88: 727-731. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281372848_LEPADID_BARNACLES_FOUND_ATTACHED_TO_A_LIVING_LOBOTES_SURINAMENSIS_PISCES
Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A., E. P. Hoberg, D. Siegel-Causey, and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1998. Metazoan parasites and other symbionts of cetaceans in the Caribbean. Journal of Parasitology 84: 939-946. Google Scholar [220]
Williams, E. H., Jr. 1978. Conchoderma virgatum (Spengler) (Cirripedia, Thoracica) in association with Dinemoura latifolia (Steenstrup and Lutken) (Copepoda, Caligidea), a parasite of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrhynchus Rafinesque (Pisces, Chondrichthyes). Crustaceana 34: 109 111. [22]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. B. Williams. 1986. The first association of Conchoderma virgatum (Spengler)(Cirripedia: Thoracica) with a euryphodid copepod in the mouth of a fish. Galaxea 5: 209 211. [79] Google Scholar
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1996. Parasites of offshore, big game sport fishes of Puerto Rico and the western North Atlantic. Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 384 pp. (book). [also Caribbean Journal of Science Special Publication 9: www.caribjsci.org/publications.html; http://www.uprm.edu/biology/cjs/biggamefish.pdf] [190] [free online]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. New host, Australian Herring, Arripis georgianus (Valenciennes, 1831), and Australian Indian Ocean locality record for the Striped Gooseneck Barnacle, Conchoderma virgatum Spengler, 1789, off Busselton Jetty, Australia. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org, 16 August (open access) [422]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019c. Partial melanism in the Australian Herring, Arripis georgianus (Valenciennes, 1831) in southern Australia. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org, 19 August (open access) [423]

Fotos / Sonidos

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Ardillas Y Parientes Familia Sciuridae

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Agosto 7, 2019

Lugar

(En algún lugar...)

Descripción

NUMBER: 20190807
SPECIES: Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger Linnaeus,1758
SUBSPECIES: Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia Howell, 1919
DISTINCTIONS: Twice as large as local Gray Squirrels, tail nearly as long as remainder of body, adults of this population have racoon-like facial markings
SIZE, SEX: medium-sized, unknown
DATE: 7 August 2019
TIME [DURATION]: 5:40 pm [na]
LOCALITY: at base of Live Oak tree beside our back door, Lely Palms, 920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, Florida 34113-8943
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26º6’25”, 81º42’55” (26.1069, -81.7153)
HABITAT: broad mowed lawn with scattered Slash Pines, Live Oaks, and other palms
REPORTED TO: Dr. Robert (Bob) Alan McCleery, Professor, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida. e-mailed, 8 pm, 14 August 2019; acknowledged ???
DATA REPORT: Naturalist (Naturalist.org) Observation #30908314
BEHAVIOR: Turn its back to me as I approached taking cell-phone photos, finally climbed up tree, slowly moved around tree, finally rested in lowest fork of the tree (photos). LBW returned with her camera and took more photos. The squirrel appeared relatively unconcerned by our presence.
OTHER SPECIES: na
PHOTOGRAPHS: discussed above
COMMENTS: This is not the adult male we originally reported here (iNaturalist #212045694, Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019a).
We have observed several other specimens of this squirrel in the closely surrounding area:
Table 1. Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia, observations in the Lely Palms area.
Number Date Time Size Locality Lat, Long_________
20190218[A] 18 Feb 10:20 am adult backdoor 26.1069, -81.7153
20190320[B,C] 20 Mar 03:00 pm adult backdoor 26.1069, -81.7153
20190606[B] 06 Jun 09:30 am small close yard 26.1068, -81.7143
20190616[C] 16 Jun 08:30 am adult backdoor 26.1069, -81.7153
20190627[C] 27 Jun Noon offspring backdoor 26.1069, -81.7153
20190712[C] 12 Jul 01:10 pm adult Augusta Blvd 26.1086, -81.7214
20190807[C] 7 Aug 05:40 pm medium backdoor 26.1069, -81.7153__
[A] = Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019a; [B] = Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019b; [C] = Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019c
IMPORTANCE: Our observations indicate this is an established and viable population of a threatened subspecies.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,1,2,4,5 and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams1,3,4,6
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: 1Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; 2Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); 3Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); 4920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; 5e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; 6Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019a. Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org, 13 March (open access) [405]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019b. Second specimen report of threatened Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org, 17 June (open access) [412]
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019c. An established and viable population of threatened Big Cypress Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia Howell, 1919, in Lely Palms, Naples, Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org, 12 August (open access) [421]

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Escarabajo de Antenas Y Mandíbulas Largas Trachyderes mandibularis

Observ.

ernesthwilliams

Fecha

Julio 16, 2019

Descripción

NUMBER: 20190716
SPECIES: Long-jawed Longhorn Beetle, Trachyderes mandibularis (Dupont, 1834)
DISTINCTIONS: wing-cover or forewing (elyron) background brown, brownish-red, blackish-red, or black. Solid yellow to orange or patterned (elytral maculae). Mandables enlarged in males, smaller but obvious in females.
SUBSPECIES: Which subspecies occur in Florida is still in question. Quinn (2009) found only T. m. mandibularis occurred in the continual USA including Florida. However, three populations with distinct color patterns exist in Florida.
OTHER NAMES: Dendrobias mandibularis Dupont, 1834, is still in use. Dendrobias is also sometimes used as a subgenus for this species.
NUMBER; SIZE; SEX: 1; body length 20.04 mm, body width 16.6 mm, left antenna length 50.0 mm; male
CONDITION: moribund, right antenna broken off
DATE, TIME: 16 July 2019, 3:30 pm
COLLECTION: washed onto building steps by heavy rains
LOCALITY: 1010 5TH Avenue South, Naples, Florida 34102
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°8’30.12”N, 81°37’45.16”W (26.1417, -81.7931)
DAMAGE: This bug only breeds on dead portions of trees. Therefore, it is not much of an economic threat. However, it does feed on tree sap and some fruit crops.
KNOWN DISTRIBUTION: This beetle has occurred in the lower Florida Keys at least since the early 1930s (Thomas, 2006) [population-1], but nowhere in the mainland during that time. One specimen was collected in the Port of Tampa, Tampa Bay, in 2004 [population 2]. Recently, a population of this species was found in the vicinity of Port Manatee, Tampa Bay, on mainland Florida’s west coast (Thomas, 2006) [p-2]. Even more recently, iNaturalist listed This species from the middle (Duck Key) and upper Keys (North Largo Key) [p.1], extreme south central (Everglades National Park), and 6 sites inland between Key Largo and Miami [p-1]. Thomas (2006) concluded that the Port Manatee population was distinct from the lower Keys population and thus they represented two introductions.

KEY to POPULATIONS1:
1a. Ground color brownish to blackish red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 2
1b. Ground color black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Population 2
2a. Two anterior markings broad, posterior much narrower (~20%)
Posterior markings lanceolate
Antennae slightly longer than body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Population 1
2b. Similar but posterior markings less (~40%) narrower
Posterior markings rectangular
Antennae more than twice as long as body (head, thorax, and abdomen) . . . Population 3
1Population 1. Lower Florida Keys. Now all Keys and SE Florida. Population 2. Tampa Bay. Population 3. Naples, Florida.

COMMENTS: The wing-cover or forewing (elyron) pattern (elytral maculae) in the specimens in the south eastern Florida appear to be very similar to those in the Keys. Further, the pattern of records in iNaturalist appears to suggest a migration up the Keys and into SE Florida. Why this migration did not occur in the previous 80 or 90 years is a mystery? The recent Global Changes may have played a role?
Our specimen does not appear to be similar to either of the two apparent populations of this beetle now in Florida. Therefore, our record represents a new introduction.
MYSTERY: The origins of all these populations remain unknown. Populations 2 and 3 are probably recent introductions. How long population 1 has been isolated in the lower Florida Keys is unknown.
REFERENCES:
Quinn, M. 2009. Long-jawed Longhorn Beetle Trachyderes m. mandibularis Dupont 1834 [sic]. Texas Beetle Information, Texas Entomology, http://texasento.net/mandibularis.htm
Thomas, M. C. 2006. A neotropical Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycideae) new to the mainland of Florida. Pest Alert. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. DACS-P-01656. https://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/66261/1600103/neotropical-longhorn-beetle.pdf
Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Third introduction, late spread of the lower Florida Keys population, and unknown origins of the Long-jawed Longhorn Beetles, Trachyderes mandibularis (Dupont, 1834) in Florida. Research Quality Report, iNaturalist.org, 12 August (open access) [420]

Fuentes:: Átomo