27 de octubre de 2023

Xanthium sottogenere Xanthium (Xanthium strumarium, X. orientale ecc.) - Xanthium subgenus Xanthium (Xanthium strumarium, X. orientale etc.)

Gli Xanthium sono specie piuttosto frequenti in contesti, ad esempio, come aree umide, zone ruderali e dune litoranee a partire dall'estate inoltrata. Le specie del sottogenere Xanthium quali X. strumarium e X. orientale sono identificabili esclusivamente quando i concettacoli (quelle strutture spinose che potrebbero essere scambiate per frutti e che, in realtà, contengono due frutti) sono ben sviluppati. L'intelligenza artificiale di iNaturalist cerca di suggerire un'identificazione più probabile anche con piante non fruttificanti. In quei casi c'è una buona probabilità che si tratti di X. orientale ma non è detto al 100%. Quindi, per non incorrere in errori, cercate di identificare a livello di specie solo piante fruttificanti.
Senza voler scendere in eccessivi particolari, qui di seguito una chiave per distinguere queste due specie:

1 - Spine del concettacolo con numerosi peli ispidi, solitamente numerose e dense tanto da coprire la superficie del concettacolo, più raramente relativamente rade. Spine apicali divergenti. Concettacoli lunghi fino a tre centimetri: Xanthium orientale

1' - Spine del concettacolo prive di peli ispidi, da numerose e dense a rade. Spine apicali convergenti oppure divergenti. Concettacoli non più lunghi di 2(2,2 cm): 2 gruppo di X. strumarium

2 - Spine apicali convergenti. Spine del concettacolo relativamente rade. Concettacoli non più lunghi di 1(1,5 cm): X. strumarium
2' - Spine apicali solitamente divergenti. Spine del concettacolo dense. Concettacoli lunghi fino a 2 cm o raramente poco più: altre specie

In molti casi, per qualche motivo, Xanthium orientale è stato incluso in X. strumarium e si è ridotto tutto il sottogenere al solo X. strumarium. Attualmente sembra che si possano considerare con buona sicurezza due specie ben distinte. Inoltre, X. strumarium in buona parte d'Europa è una specie teoricamente autoctona e, comunque, estremamente rara, mentre X. orientale è decisamente comune e più o meno ovunque invasivo.

Letteratura:

  • Jeanmonod D., 1996. Xanthium subg. Xanthium et Helichrysum italicum, deux cas taxonomiques ardus. Candollea 53:435–457
  • Tomasello S., 2018. How many names for a beloved genus? Coalescent based species delimitation in Xanthium L. (Ambrosiinae, Asteraceae). Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 127: 135–145

Xanthium species are prettyfrequent species in contexts, for example, such as wetlands, ruderal areas and coastal dunes from late summer. Species of the subgenus Xanthium such as X. strumarium and X. orientale are identifiable only when the conceptacles (those spiny structures that could be mistaken for fruits and which, in fact, contain two fruits) are well developed. iNaturalist's artificial intelligence tries to suggest the most likely identification even with non-fruiting plants. In those cases, there is a good chance that it is X. orientale, but it is not 100% certain. So, in order not to make mistakes, try to identify at the species level only fruit-bearing plants. Without going into too much detail, here is a key to distinguish these two species:

1 - Spines of the conceptacle with numerous bristly hairs, usually numerous and dense enough to cover the surface of the conceptacle, more rarely relatively sparse. Apical spines divergent. Conceptacles up to three centimeters long: Xanthium orientale
1' - Spines of the conceptacle without bristly hairs, numerous and dense to sparse. Apical spines convergent or divergent. Conceptacles no longer than 2(2.2 cm): 2 group of X. strumarium
2 - Apical spines convergent. Conceptacle spines relatively sparse. Conceptacles no longer than 1 (1.5 cm): X. strumarium
2' - Apical spines usually divergent. Conceptacle spines dense. Conceptacles up to 2 cm long or rarely a little more: other species

In many cases, for some reasons, Xanthium orientale has been included in X. strumarium and the entire subgenus has been reduced to just X. strumarium. At present, it seems that we can safely consider two distinct species. Moreover, X. strumarium in most of Europe is a theoretically autochthonous and, in any case, extremely rare species, while X. orientale is very common and more or less everywhere invasive.

Literature:

  • Jeanmonod D., 1996. Xanthium subg. Xanthium et Helichrysum italicum, deux cas taxonomiques ardus. Candollea 53:435–457
  • Tomasello S., 2018. How many names for a beloved genus? Coalescent based species delimitation in Xanthium L. (Ambrosiinae, Asteraceae). Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 127: 135–145
Publicado el octubre 27, 2023 02:16 TARDE por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

23 de octubre de 2023

Pyracantha, non sempre si tratta di P. coccinea (Pyracantha, not always is P. coccinea)

Per il territorio Italiano su iNat si contano quasi 700 osservazioni riferibili al genere Pyracantha. Si tratta,, quindi, di un soggetto relativamente ben rappresentato. Probabilmente, ciò che attrae di più di questo genere sono le infruttescenze vistosamente colorate nei mesi autunnali. Tuttavia, si nota come molte di queste osservazioni, soprattutto se fatte in contesti urbani, ritraggano una specie diversa da Pyracantha coccinea e che viene molto più frequentemente utilizzata per bordure, P. crenulata. Sfortunatamente, l'intelligenza artificiale di iNat non è stata ancora "istruita" a riconoscere queste due specie diverse e finisce sempre per suggerire Pyracantha coccinea come identificazione più probabile. Di seguito la chiave per distinguere queste due specie:

1 - Almeno alcune foglie acute all'apice; lanceolate oppure ellittiche (larghezza massima nel terzo basale oppure verso la metà); crenate nei 2/3 superiori. Piante di solito di ambienti naturali come orli boschivi e siepi: Pyracantha coccinea
1' - Foglie tutte da smarginate a ottuse all'apice, raramente alcune subottuse e mucronate; spatolate oppure oblanceolate (larghezza massima verso l'apice); la maggior parte di esse crenate al margine solo nella metà superiore. Piante raramente spontaneizzate, di solito coltivate: P. crenulata

Può essere utile anche verificare se le foglie di sotto hanno della peluria. Pyracantha coccinea è del tutto glabra mentre altre specie esotiche possono avere della peluria. Osservare l'eventuale peluria sul calice e l'ipanzio e sui pedicelli può rivelarsi utile: Pyracantha coccinea di solito li ha densamente pelosi mentre in altre specie la peluria può variare.

For the Italian territory on iNat there are almost 700 observations referable to the genus Pyracantha. It is, therefore, a relatively well represented subject. Probably, the conspicuously colored infructescences in the autumn months are what is most attractive about this genus . However, it is noted that many of these observations, especially if made in urban contexts, depict a different species from Pyracantha coccinea and which is much more frequently used for borders, P. crenulata. Unfortunately, iNat's AI has not yet been "trained" to recognize these two different species and always ends up suggesting Pyracantha coccinea as the most likely identification. Below there is the key to distinguish these two species:

1 - At least some leaves acute at the apex; lanceolate or elliptical (maximum width in the basal third or towards the middle); crenate in upper 2/3. Plants usually growing in wild habitats like woods edges and hedges: Pyracantha coccinea
1' - Leaves all smarginate to obtuse at the apex, rarely some subobtuse and mucronate; spatulate or oblanceolate (maximum width towards the apex); mostly crenate at margin in upper half. Plants rarely escaped from cultivation: P. crenulata

It may also be useful to check if the leaves underneath have hairs. Pyracantha coccinea is completely hairless while other exotic species may have some haira. Observing if there are hairs on the calyx and hypanthium and on the pedicels can turn out to be useful: Pyracantha coccinea usually is densely hairy hair while in other species the indumentum can vary.

Publicado el octubre 23, 2023 03:45 TARDE por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

28 de agosto de 2023

The complete Flora Iberica

Flora Iberica has been completed and its volumes are now downloadable from the site of the Digital Library or the Royal Botanic Garden of Madrid:
https://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/records/item/9895-flora-iberica?offset=1

Publicado el agosto 28, 2023 11:37 TARDE por blue_celery blue_celery | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

07 de agosto de 2023

Why I have decided to unfollow many users.

This is simply because I have the necessity to find comments and other users' identifications in my board. To do so among the hundred observations the users I followed post everyday had become a really difficult task.
So, it is not that I do not esteem you anymore.

Publicado el agosto 7, 2023 04:43 TARDE por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

09 de marzo de 2023

12 de septiembre de 2022

Pink-flowered fumitories

This post regards those species that feature flowers with corolla that is pink at the beginning of flowering, not those with a corolla that becomes pink to purple with age.
When I started identifying fumitories in iNat I noticed that in some cases there was some confusion in these pink-flowered species and it happened that in some geographical areas for them the identification as F. officinalis was suggested by the AI. Actually, F. officinalis in some areas seems rather rare while other species such as F. bastardii and F. muralis regard the vast majority of observations.

Here a key to distinguish these species

1 - Corolla shorter than 9 mm. Sepals lanceolate. Upper petal with almost almost flat margins at apex, broadly spathulate and often slightly emarginate. Fruit usually broader than long, broader in upper half, emarginate or truncate at apex, very rarely broadly rounded. Inflorescence rich with 10 to 80 flowers. Leaves laciniae comparatively much narrower: F. officinalis s.l.
1' - Corolla longer than (8-)9 mm. Sepals ovate to suborbicular. Upper petal with margins from slightly to strongly bent upwards at apex, never spathulate but subobtuse to subacute. Fruit slightly longer than broad, broader in the middle, rounded at apex. Inflorescence comparatively less rich with with 8 to 25 flowers. Leaves laciniae comparatively much broader: 2

2 - Inflorescence usually longer than peduncle (very rarely as long as or shorter), with 10-23(26) flowers. Corolla (8)9-11(12) mm long. Sepals ovate or elliptical or rarely suborbicular, 2,5-3,5 x 1,5-2,5(3?) mm, usually distinctly dentate at margin. Upper petal pink or dark purple at apex. Fruit strongly rugose when dried. Stigma?: F. bastardii
2' - Inflorescence usually longer than peduncle (rarely as long as or shorter?), with 8-20(25) flowers. Corolla 10-15 mm long. Sepals ovate or elliptical or rarely suborbicular, 3-5 x (1,5)2-2,5(3) mm, usually subentire or with soem teeth at base. Upper petal dark purple at apex. Fruit smooth or slightly rugulose when dried. Stigma with a distinctly visible central appendix that is longer than the two lateral ones: F. reuteri
2'' - Inflorescence usually shorter than or as long as peduncle (very rarely longer), with 8-15(20) flowers. Corolla (8)9-12(13) mm long. Sepals ovate or elliptical or rarely suborbicular, 2,5-5 x (1,5)2-2,5(3) mm, dentate or subentire at margin. Upper petal dark purple at apex. Fruit smooth or slightly rugulose when dried. Stigma with a barely visible central appendix that is shoter than the two lateral ones: F. muralis s.l.

  • F. officinalis is easily identified, even without measuring corolla length, because the upper petal is flat and very broad apex. The inflorescence is always very rich in flowers. If fruits are available, they are extremely typical being rather broad (broader in upper third) with the apex usually emarginate or truncate.
  • F. bastardii can often be easily identified when the upper petal is concolorous being pink and not purple at apex and when it has a relatively rich inflorescence. The observation of the dried fruit surface is easy with just a linen tester and can be decisive to exclude both F. muralis and F. reuteri.
  • F. reuteri and F. muralis are often hard to distinguish also in consideration that, at least, F. muralis can rarely show an inflorescence longer than peduncle. A reliable identification should need the observation of the stigma with a microscope.

Anyway, the recommendations made in this previous post are still valid:
https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/blue_celery/31675-fumaria-what-to-photograph-for-the-identification

References:
Lidén, M. 1986. Synopsis of Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae) with a monograph of the tribe Fumarieae. Opera Botanica 88: 1-133.
Lidén, M. 1986b. Fumaria L. In S. Castroviejo & al. (eds.): Flora Iberica 1: 447-467.
http://www.floraiberica.es/floraiberica/texto/pdfs/01_038_13_Fumaria.pdf
Murphy, R.J. 2009. Fumitories of Britain and Ireland. Botanical Society of the British Isles.

Publicado el septiembre 12, 2022 09:34 MAÑANA por blue_celery blue_celery | 4 comentarios | Deja un comentario

18 de mayo de 2022

Malva sylvestris vs multiflora vs neglecta vs nicaeensis vs parviflora (key)

Malva sylvestris vs multiflora vs nicaeensis vs parviflora

1 - Epicalyx united at least in lower half. Petals 12-25(30) mm long, 2-3 times as long as calyx; with purple or deep pink stripes over a lilac background. Fruits smooth or slightly rugose. At least in part often somehow greysh-green due to the presence to rather abundant stellate hairs. Annuals: Malva multiflora (=M. pseudolavatera)
1' - Epicalyx pieces separated. Petals 2,5-30(35) mm long, shorter than calyx or up to 5 times as long as calyx; whitish or tinged with rose in upper half or with purple or deep pink stripes over a lilac or pink background. Fruits reticulate or smooth. Plants green with simple or bifid hairs (M. nicaeensis, M. sylvestris) or green with few scattered stellate hairs (M. parviflora) or with up to rather dense stellate hairs (M. neglecta). Annuals or perennials: 2

2 - Petals 15-30(35) mm long, up to 5 times as long as calyx, with purple or deep pink stripes over a pink background. Perennials: M. sylvestris
2' - Petals 2,5-12 mm long, shorter or up to twice as long as calyx, whitish or coloured with rose in upper half. Annuals (rarely parennials in M. neglecta): 3

3 - Petals 2,5-5 mm long, shorter to slightly longer than calyx, completely whitish or faintly rose-coloured at apex and without pink stripes. Calyx distinctly accrescent at fructification. Stem subglabrous: M. parviflora
3' - Petals 6-14 mm long, 1,2-twice as long as calyx, totally white or with faint pink stripes over a white or very light pinkish background or with pink stripes over a whitish background and pinkish at apex. Calyx not accrescent at fructification. Stem rather densely hairy: 4

4 - Petals with pink stripes over a whitish background and pinkish at apex, rarely whitish and with faint stripes. Fruits strongly reticulate, more often glabrous, rarely hairy. Epycalix pieces ovate or oblong-ovate, relatively broad and close to each other. Plants more often erect: M. nicaeensis
4' - Petals totally white or with faint pink stripes over a white or very light pinkish background. Fruits smooth or slightly reticulate, densely hairy. Epycalix pieces linear or narrowly lanceolate, narrow and distant from each other. Plants more often prostrate or decumbent: M. neglecta

Publicado el mayo 18, 2022 01:19 TARDE por blue_celery blue_celery | 4 comentarios | Deja un comentario

04 de mayo de 2022

In search for the true Tragopogon porrifolius

Tragopogon is a rather critical genus as far as its taxonomy is concerned.
Here in the Mediterranean there are at least two other species resembling T. porrifolius L., T. eriospermus Ten. and T. cupanii Guss. ex DC., the latter endemics to some southern Italian regions.

For a rather long time T. porrifolius and T. eriospermus have been confused. Instead, despite both having "purple" flowers and inflated scape below the capitula, the two species are rather easily distinguished:

Here the original description of T. eriospermus and the first drawing:
http://www.ortobotanico.unina.it/FN/TV/TV0176.PDF
http://www.ortobotanico.unina.it/FN/TavoleFN/t0186.PDF

The type of T. porrifolius has been selected here:
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1222832
and can be viewed here:
https://linnean-online.org/9553/

Most of the observations of T. porrifolius from North America refer to another taxon that is more similar to T. eriospermus:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=97394&taxon_id=54141

In Europe it is just slightly better...

Maybe could it be worth revising the presence of the "purple-flowered" Tragopogon in North America?
To do this, apart photographing the capitulum and the scape below the capitulum, it would be useful to photograph:

1) leaves: undulate/not undulate at margins

2) phyllaries: reflexed/porrect at flowering

3) achenes when dried: achene body strongly narrowed into a very narrow rostrum or just slightly narrowed

4) habitat: dry or rather wet

Publicado el mayo 4, 2022 11:14 MAÑANA por blue_celery blue_celery | 10 comentarios | Deja un comentario

15 de diciembre de 2021

Taxonomic Literature: A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types

axonomic Literature: A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types
Bibliographies, types and other data on almost all botanical authors.

https://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollectio ... /index.cfm
https://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollectio ... nloads.cfm

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/ite ... 1/mode/1up

Publicado el diciembre 15, 2021 11:01 MAÑANA por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

07 de noviembre de 2021

Flora of Nepal

Flora of Nepal
http://www.floraofnepal.org/home

including free PDFs

Publicado el noviembre 7, 2021 09:41 MAÑANA por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario