07 de noviembre de 2021

Flora of Nepal

Flora of Nepal
http://www.floraofnepal.org/home

including free PDFs

Ingresado el 07 de noviembre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

05 de noviembre de 2021

Taxonomic keys by Jean Leurquin (Naturalistes de la Haute-Lesse)

Taxonomic keys by Jean Leurquin (Naturalistes de la Haute-Lesse)

https://naturalistesdelahautelesse.be/about/publications%20de%20jean%20leurquin.html

Ingresado el 05 de noviembre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

19 de octubre de 2021

On the discrepancies between the taxonomic backbones and the current taxonomy of certain taxa

As expected, there are many cases of discrepancies between the used backbones and the long-accepted taxonomy of certain taxa. It couldn't be different.

This is my very own and debatable point of view: I think it is quite weird that we must wait for an external subject (though very authoritative and our present reference as taxonomic backbone for plants) to revise its taxonomic treatment of a certain taxon in order to have it here recognized as an independent taxon.
In some cases it is suggested to get in contact with that subject to ask its staff to revise their point of view on a given taxon. As regards, I think it would be very impolite to bring someone's attention to their (presumed) wrong taxonomic treatment of a certain taxon.

Definitively, I think that those who adjust the iNat taxonomy to that of a given backbone should take much more care in changing iNat taxonomy. Wouldn't it be worth taking a look at other taxonomic treatments before or to ask the point of view of those who are supposed to know that taxon well?

PS: I know which are the "rules" but, at the same time, I am deeply convinced that following overzealously the rules is not always the best.

Ingresado el 19 de octubre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

15 de octubre de 2021

A message to all the free people

A message to all the free people:
what is happening in the world must be seen as a warning to everyone. If you accept safety in exchange for freedom, you will lose both.
Now, if you agree with this message and if you are allowed, try to make people open their eyes. Awareness and knowledge are what will make mankind pass through this crisis, not control and lies.
And if you have time, just make a prayer for all the free people of the world who are suffering for the shortage of freedom, it may sound little but it could be much.

Ingresado el 15 de octubre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

07 de septiembre de 2021

Key to species of subtribe Orobanchinae in the old world (Orobanche, Phelipanche and Boulardia) that are most represented in iNaturalist

Key to subtribe Orobanchinae
1 – A pair of additional bractlets present on the lateral sides of the calyx. Bract much shorter than corolla. Corolla usually blue or violet, rarely pale blue or whitish. Inflorescence sometimes branched with branches arising from above or under the ground: Phelipanche
1 – Bractlets absent. Bract shorter, as long as or longer than corolla. Corolla rarely blue or violet. Inflorescence never branched: 2
2 – Bracts denticulate on margins. Stem scales dense and broad. Calyx entire on upper side, subcampanulate. Corolla strongly narrowed and erect in lower half; constricted just below the middle and strongly galeate at apex; pinkish or whitish. Inflorescence many-flowered and dense. Stem thick. Western Mediterranean. Parasite to Rosmarinus spp.: Boulardia latisquama
2 – Bracts entire. Calyx usually divided into two halves, entire on upper side in few species. Corolla as above of differently shaped: Orobanche

OROBANCHE
1 – Glandular hairs on corolla with purple base (for plants apparently without such hairs or so much pigmented that such hairs are hard to be seen, see the following dichotomies; plants are sometimes deeply purplish-coloured so that the purple hairs are hardly visible): Group 1 (Grex Glandulosae + Curvatae)
1’ – Plants not as above: 2
2 – Non-flowering part of stem usually completely or mostly hidden underground. Inflorescence extremely dense. Corolla more or less straight, erecto-patent, almost enclosed in the bract, up to 18 mm long. Corolla lobes mucronate. Bracts suborbicular or broadly ovate. Parasite of Polygonaceae. From Middle East to central Asia: O. camptolepis (Grex Coerulescentes?)
2’ – Plants not as above: 3
3 – Corolla constricted towards or just below the middle, strongly curved (60° to 120°) towards the middle; usually blue or violet in upper half (somehow resembling Phelipanche) or, at least, at apex; often subglabrous with minute glandular hairs or glandular-pubescent or densely hairy up to lanate, with non-glandular hairs. Bracts shorter than corolla. Parasite mostly of Artemisia spp., alternatively growing on crops or on Lactuca spp.: Group 2 (Grex Coerulescentes)
3’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters: 4
4 – Corolla on the outside deep red or dark red or blackish-red in upper half or throughout or, alternatively yellowish with red stripes; red or light red on the inside (for yellow or whitish specimens see following dichotomies). Stigma yellow or reddish: 5
4’ – Corolla not coloured as above. Stigma yellow or orange or purple (rarely white or pinkish): 7
5 – Corolla blackish-red; strongly galeate at apex (with a distinct hump on upper side); more or less erect, at least in lower half; usually strongly broadened in upper half. Inflorescence lax and few-flowered. Parasite of Geranium spp. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia and Turkey: O. gamosepala (Group 3, Grex Galeatae)
5’ – Corolla not or, rarely, only slightly humped at apex; spreading or, rarely, erecto-patent; tubulose or inflate throughout. Inflorescence lax and few-flowered to dense and many-flowered. Parasite of Fabaceae: 6
6 – Corolla lower lip margin erose; upper lip spreading or erect. Calyx teeth triangular or lanceolate, usually less than ½ as long as corolla. Inflorescence from lax and few-flowered to very dense and many-flowered. Lanate hairs present or not. Stigma yellow or reddish. Stem slender to thick. Parasite of woody or, rarely, herbaceous Fabaceae: Group 4 (Grex Cruentae)
6’ - Corolla lower lip margin erose; upper lip often erect. Calyx teeth subulate, usually more than ½ as long as corolla. Inflorescence many-flowered and usually lax, rarely rather dense. Lanate hairs absent. Stigma usually reddish, rarely yellow in yellow-coloured plants. Stem slender. Parasite of trees (Rhus, Fraxinus, Carpinus, etc.): O. laxissima (Group 8, Grex Speciosae)
6’’ – Corolla lower lip margin entire or nearly so; upper lip usually spreading or rarely slightly erect. Calyx teeth triangular or lanceolate, usually less than ½ as long as corolla. Inflorescence many-flowered, rather dense to very dense. Lanate hairs always present. Stigma yellow or, rarely, reddish. Stem thick. Parasite of woody or, rarely, herbaceous Fabaceae or Salvia spp.: Group 5 (Grex Arcuatae)
7 – Corolla curved throughout, erect and almost parallel to stem axis in lower third, then curved more or less at right angle towards the middle so more or less forming a 90° angle from base to apex;
7’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters: 9
8 – Corolla much narrower in lower 1/3 and then inflate to strongly inflate, otherwise slender or moderately inflate. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular up to triangular, never lanceolate. Inflorescence relatively lax to rather dense up to very dense. Stem often thick. Never parasitizing Fabaceae: Group 6 (Grex Curvatae)
8’ - Corolla abruptly narrowed at base and then moderately inflate to inflate. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular up to lanceolate. Inflorescence relatively lax to dense but never very dense. Stem slander to thick. Stigma yellow or orange or, rarely, red-purplish in deeply pigmented specimens. Parasite of Fabaceae: Group 4 (Grex Cruentae)
9 – Corolla strongly geniculate towards base (forming an angle more or less at 1/3 - 1/4), then spreading or even slightly bent downwards; 15-25 mm long. Sepals filiform and almost as long as corolla or narrowly triangular and shorter. Inflorescence rather dense; comose (with long and narrow bracts overtopping the still underdeveloped flowers at apex) or not. Parasite of Eryngium spp. or Digitalis: 10
9’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters:11
10 – Sepals filiform, often almost as long as corolla. Bracts linear or narrowly triangular, longer than corolla and giving the inflorescence a comose appearance. Parasite exclusive of Eryngium. From the Iberian Peninsula to the Balcans; from Tunisia to Germany: O. amethystea subsp. amethystea (Group 7, Grex Minores)
10’ – Sepals narrowly triangular, much shorter than corolla. Bracts lanceolate, as long as corolla at most. Inflorescence not comose. Parasite of Digitalis. Corsica, France, Spain, Portugal and Morocco: O. amethystea subsp. castellana (Group 7, Grex Minores)
11 – Inflorescence extremely dense and many-flowered; strongly comose. Corolla yellowish or whitish, 16-22 mm long. Stigma yellow or yellowish. Stem extremely thick. Parasite of coastal Fabaceae (mainly Lotus spp.). Cádiz area, Algarve, Baixo Alentejo and northern Morocco: O. densiflora (whitish and yellowish forms; Group 4, Grex Cruentae)
11’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters: 12
12 – Corolla strongly galeate (with a distinct hump on upper side) at apex; strongly broadened towards apex, or inflate just beyond base; with upper calyx lip usually spreading or only slightly erect. Calyx often shorter than ½ of corolla; teeth triangular: 13
12’ – Corolla not or, rarely, only very slightly galeate at apex; with upper calyx teeth from spreading to strongly erect. Calyx longer or shorter than ½ of corolla length; teeth triangular or narrowly triangular or filiform: 14
13 – Inflorescence lax (sometimes rather dense only in O. lutea), usually not or not much longer than the above the ground part of stem. Stem rather slender. Corolla lips erose (minutely denticulate). Corolla strongly broadened towards apex, never inflate in the rest; erecto-patent or erect in lower half; whitish, pinkish, pink, brownish or, rarely, yellowish. Stigma not strongly bent downwards, purple or yellow. Plants never lanate. Parasite of Rubiaceae, Teucrium, Geranium and Medicago spp.: Group 3 (Grex Galeatae)
13’ – Inflorescence dense, much longer than the above the ground part of stem. Stem thick. Corolla lips not erose (not minutely denticulate). Corolla usually not much broader towards apex (rarely so) but often inflate; reddish or flesh-coloured or brownish, rarely yellow. Stigma often strongly bent downwards, yellow. Plants at least with some lanate hairs, often strongly so. Parasite of woody Fabaceae: Group 5 (Grex Arcuatae)
13’’ – Inflorescence dense or rather lax, if dense much longer than the above the ground part of stem. Stem slender or thick. Corolla lips erose (minutely denticulate). Corolla tubulose or inflate, not gradually broadening towards apex; yellow. Stigma often strongly bent downwards, yellow. Plants rarely lanate. Parasite of woody and herbaceous Fabaceae: Group 3 (Grex Cruentae)
13’’’ – Inflorescence usually rather lax, rarely dense. Stem slender. Corolla lips erose. Corolla gradually broadening towards apex; pure white or whitish or yellowish. Stigma often strongly bent downwards, pink or rarely orangish. Plants not lanate, always faintly coloured. Parasite of Salvia spp.: Orobanche alba subsp. major (Group 1, Grex Glandulosae)
14 – Corolla very narrow (3-4× as long as broad); distinctly curved on upper side and often bent downwards; yellow or yellowish. Bracts and stem scales long and narrow, then inflorescence comose. Parasite of Lotus cytisoides, mainly in coastal habitats: O. sanguinea (Group 4, Grex Cruentae)
14’ – Corolla broader (less than 3× as long as broad); yellow or yellowish or differently coloured. Bracts and stem scales long and narrow or shorter and broader, then inflorescence comose or not. Never parasitizing Lotus cytisoides: 15
15 – Corolla somehow inflate above the base; yellow; upper lip spreading or slightly bent upwards. Inflorescence rather dense (in O. gracilis often lax). Calyx often shorter than 1/2 of corolla length or longer; teeth triangular or broader. Parasite of woody or, rarely, herbaceous Fabaceae: 16
15’ – Corolla not inflate; yellow or differently coloured; upper lip spreading in few cases, usually bent upwards. Inflorescence often lax, in few cases rather dense. Calyx usually longer than 1/2 of corolla length; teeth narrowly triangular or filiform. Never parasitizing woody Fabaceae: 17
16 – Lower corolla lip erose (minutely denticulate). Corolla not lanate. Stem slender or thick: Group 4 (Grex Cruentae)
16’ – Lower corolla lip entire or with just few small teeth. Corolla at least with some lanate hair. Stem thick: Group 5 (Grex Arcuatae)
17 – Corolla gradually broadening towards apex; pure white or whitish or yellowish. Stigma often strongly bent downwards. Plants always faintly coloured. Parasite of Salvia spp.: Orobanche alba subsp. major
17’ – Corolla tubulose, then trumpet-shaped or not at apex; coloured as above or more deeply coloured. Stigma not strongly bent downwards. Plants often, at least in part, more deeply coloured. Parasite of various families: 18
18 – Corolla straight or nearly so on lower side, not or just very slightly curved at base, straight and broadened or rarely very slightly curved on upper side; trumpet-shaped towards apex; white with or without purple stripes or much more deeply coloured being dark red, orange, yellow or purple. Calyx filiform in upper part and often nearly reaching corolla apex. Corolla up to 31 mm long. Parasite of herbaceous Fabaceae or woody species: Group 8 (Grex Speciosae)
18’ – Corolla distinctly curved at least at base, from distinctly curved to almost straight above, trumpet-shaped or not towards apex; never deeply coloured (mainly whitish or yellowish). Calyx filiform or broader. Corolla up to 28 mm long (O. kochii) or up to 22 mm long (Grex Minores). Parasite of various families: 19
19 – Corolla usually distinctly curved at base, then more or less straight above; erecto-patent; trumpet-shaped towards apex; whitish, yellowish or pinkish, (15-)20-28 mm long; never bearing long hairs. Inflorescence never very lax. Stem rather thick, never slender. Stigma yellow. Parasite of Centaurea or Echinops: O. kochii (incl. O. ritro; Group 6, Grex Curvatae?)
19’ - Corolla curved throughout or curved at base and then straight above; usually spreading, erecto-patent or slightly bent downwards in few cases; not trumpet-shaped towards apex; never deeply coloured (in O. pubescens sometimes deep violet in upper 2/3); in some species bearing long hairs. Inflorescence very lax to rather dense. Stem usually slender, very rarely rather thick. Stigma yellow or purple, rarely pinkish or white: Group 7 (Grex Minores)

Group 1 (Grex Glandulosae + Curvatae)
1 – Plants almost always very large with large and very dense inflorescence. Corolla curved throughout and more or less forming a 90° angle. Bract narrowly lanceolate to linear, longer than corolla. Parasite of Laserpitium siler: O. laserpiti-sileris (Grex Curvatae)
1’ – Plants small to very large with few-flowered to very dense inflorescence. Corolla never curved throughout nor forming a 90° angle. Bracts lanceolate, shorter to longer than corolla. Parasite of Lamiaceae, spiny Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae subfamily Dipsacoideae: 3 (Grex Glandulosae)
2 – Plants usually with very dense inflorescence longer than stem. Stem usually thick. Stem scales dense. Bracts and calyx not dark purple. Parasite of Cephalaria. Caucasus and Transcaucasia: O. grossheimii (Grex Curvatae)
2’ – Plants rarely with dense inflorescence, usually shorter than or as long as stem. Stem usually thin, rarely thick. Stem scales sparse. Bracts and calyx dark purple or not. Parasite of Lamiaceae, spiny Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae subfamily Dipsacoideae: 3
3 – Corolla background colour whitish or pinkish, rarely yellowish or deep pink to deep red; without a purplish blotch on upper side above the middle well contrasting with the rest of the background colour. Bracts shorter to longer than corolla. Calyx never blackish purple; rarely bidentate. Stigma strongly bent downwards or not. Stem slender. Plants often comparatively smaller with few-flowered inflorescence. Parasite of Lamiaceae (mostly Thymus spp.): O. alba subsp. alba
3’ – Corolla background colour white, rarely light yellowish; without a purplish blotch on upper side above the middle well contrasting with the rest of the background colour. Bracts usually shorter than corolla. Calyx usually blackish purple in well-pigmented plants; often bidentate. Stigma strongly bent downwards or not. Stem slender or rather thick. Plants small- to large-sized with few- to many-flowered inflorescence. Parasite of Salvia spp.: O. alba. subsp. major
3’’ – Corolla background colour yellowish, rarely whitish; usually with a purplish blotch on upper side above the middle well contrasting with the rest of the background colour. Bracts usually longer than corolla. Calyx usually blackish purple in well-pigmented plants, well contrasting with corolla background colour; often bidentate. Stigma not strongly bent downwards. Stem slender or rather thick. Plants small- to large-sized with few- to many-flowered inflorescence. Parasite usually of Carduus and Cirsium, rarely of Dipsacoideae: O. reticulata
3’’’ – Corolla background colour yellowish, rarely whitish; with or without a purplish blotch on upper side above the middle well contrasting with the rest of the background colour. Bracts usually shorter than corolla. Calyx usually blackish purple in well-pigmented plants, well contrasting with corolla background colour; often bidentate. Stigma not strongly bent downwards. Stem slender or rather thick. Plants medium- to large-sized with few- to many-flowered inflorescence. Parasite of Salvia spp.: O. pallidiflora

Group 2 (Grex Coerulescentes)
1 – Plants lanate with long non-glandular hairs. Inflorescence usually dense, sometimes rather lax: O. coerulescens
1’ – Plants not lanate. Inflorescence never dense: 2
3 – Corolla 20-40 mm long; rather slender in basal part and broad in upper part being trumpet-shaped, erecto-patent or spreading; straight or geniculate towards the middle: O. amoena
3’ – Corolla 13-25 mm long; not trumpet-shaped in upper half; more or less geniculate or curved: 4
4 – Corolla slightly or distinctly bent downwards in upper half, usually forming a 90° to 120° angle, 13-18 mm long. Inflorescence often dense. Stem thick or slender. Parasite of wild Artemisia spp., rarely on other Asteraceae: O. cernua
4’ – Corolla slightly or distinctly bent downwards in upper half, usually forming a 90° to 120° angle, 16-22 mm long. Inflorescence rather lax. Stem slender. Parasite of crops (Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana spp. Solanum lycopersicon): O. cumana
4’’ – Corolla spreading in upper half, forming an angle well less than 90°, 15-19 mm long. Inflorescence often dense. Stem thick or slender. Parasite of Lactuca spp.: O. grenieri

Group 3 (Grex Galeate)
1 – Calyx entire on upper side: 2
1’ – Calyx divided up to base on upper side: 3
2 – Corolla erecto-patent; whitish or rarely yellowish. Stigma purplish. Parasite of Rubiaceae. Western Mediterranean: O. clausonis
2 – Corolla erect in lower half; dark purple or slightly paler. Stigma yellow. Parasite of Geranium spp. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Turkey: O. gamosepala
3 – Corolla erect in lower half; dark purple or slightly paler. Parasite of Geranium spp. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Turkey: O. gamosepala
3’ – Plants not as above: 4
4 – Calyx as long as 1/3 of corolla at most, divided in two broad teeth. Corolla whitish or yellowih, faintly coloured. Parasite of Rubiaceae: O. clausonis
4’ – Calyx longer. Corolla as above or deeply coloured. Parasite of Rubiaceae or other families: 5
5 – Corolla slightly curved on upper side, never geniculate at base nor straight in the middle, pinkish or whitish, more or less concolorous. Stigma purple. Inflorescence lax. Plants up to 50 cm long.Parasite of Rubiaceae: O. caryophyllacea
5’ – Corolla straight on upper side and geniculate at base; yellowish or light brown, rarely pinkish, more or less concolorous. Stigma purple.. Inflorescence lax. Plants usually shorter than 30 cm. Parasite of Teucrium spp.: O. teucrii
5’’ – Corolla straight on upper side and geniculate at base; often discolorous being yellowish or paler at base and pinkish or brownish in upper half. Stigma yellow. Inflorescence sometimes relatively dense. Plants 20-60 mm tall. Parasite of Medicago spp. (mostly M. sativa and M. falcata): O. lutea

Group 4 (Grex Cruentae)
1 – Corolla very narrow (3-4× as long as broad); distinctly curved on upper side and often bent downwards; red or deep red at least in lower half (though yellow plants may be found). Stem slender. Bracts and stem scales long and narrow, then inflorescence comose. Parasite of Lotus cytisoides, mainly in coastal habitats: O. sanguinea
1’ – Corolla broader (less than 3× as long as broad); not as curved as above, never bent downwards; red or deep red or with some yellow part or withish-yellowish throughout. Stem thick or slender. Bracts and stem scales long and narrow or shorter and broader, then inflorescence comose or not. Parasite of Lotus spp. or other woody Fabaceae: 2
2 - Inflorescence extremely dense, comose. Corolla often yellowish or whitish, alternatively red or deep red. Stigma yellow or yellowish, alternatively red. Stem extremely thick. Parasite exclusively of coastal Fabaceae (mainly Lotus spp.). Cádiz area, Algarve, Baixo Alentejo and northern Morocco: O. densiflora
2’ – Plants without the same combinations of characters (in particular inflorescence is never extremely dense throughout, that is at least the lowermost flowers are rather sparse). Parasite of herbaceous or woody Fabaceae in coastal and inland environments: 3
3 – Inflorescence rather comose (that is bracts and stem scale are rather long and narrow); rather dense. Calyx teeth rather narrow, often filiform and nearly reaching corolla apex. Corolla usually deep red, alternatively red (in red-flowered plants), without lanate hairs and glossy. Parasite of herbaceous or woody (mostly small shrubs) Fabaceae. Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia: O. foetida
3’ – Inflorescence rather comose or not; lax or rather dense. Calyx teeth not as above and usually shorter than 2/3 of corolla length. Corolla mostly deep red, red or mostly yellow with red stripes (though yellow-flowered plants may be observed), dull and usually with lanate hairs. Parasite of woody (mostly large shrubs or small trees), or rarely herbaceous, Fabaceae: 4
4 – Inflorescence rather dense. Corolla mostly deep red or red with a whitish-yellowish patch at base (in red-flowered plants), very rarely yellow throughout; always with lanate hairs on upper side. Stem rather thick. Parasite of woody Fabaceae. Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and southern Italy: O. variegata
4’ – Inflorescence often lax, not often rather dense. Corolla usually yellow with red or deep red stripes (yellowish with red stripes throughout in O. austrohispanica=O. gracilis) or red only in upper half/third, rarely red or deep red in upper 2/3, very rarely yellow throughout; rarely with lanate hairs on upper side. Stem usually slender, rarely rather thick. Parasite of woody Fabaceae, rarely on herbaceous Fabaceae. From western Mediterranean to Caucasus, northwards up to Germany and Poland: O. gracilis

Group 5 (Grex Arcuatae)
1 – Plants strongly lanate with long hairs on stem and bracts, lanate or not on corolla. Above the ground part of stem extremely short. Parasite of Salvia spp. Caucasus and Turkey: O. anatolica (incl. O. colorata)
1’ – Plants not strongly lanate or lanate but not with long hairs. Inflorescence not dense in lower part. Corolla flesh-coloured or light brown, rarely yellow or reddish. Above the ground part of stem rather long though shorter than inflorescence. Parasite of woody Fabaceae. CW-Euromediterranean area, Balkans and Turkey: O. rapum-genistae
1’’ – Plants not strongly lanate or lanate but not with long hairs. Inflorescence dense throughout. Corolla reddish, rarely yellow. Above the ground part of stem extremely short. Parasite of woody Fabaceae. Corsica and Sardinia: O. rigens

Group 6 (Grex Curvatae)
1 – Corolla almost curved throughout or just at base but not forming a right angle, spreading or erecto-patent. Parasite of Centaurea and Echinops: 2
1 – Corolla erect and almost parallel to inflorescence axis in lower third, then bent at almost right angle or forming a right angle throughout. Parasite of Centaurea or other species: 3
2 – Bracts narrowly triangular and much longer than corolla. Inflorescence usually dense to very dense, longer than stem. Corolla never whitish but yellowish to deep pink. Spain and SW France, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia: O. leptantha
2’ – Bracts lanceolate and slightly shorter to, rarely, slightly longer than corolla. Inflorescence rarely very dense, often shorter than stem. Corolla often whitish, otherwise yellowish to pink. From Pyrenees to Caucasus. Parasite of Centaurea spp. and Echinops: O. kochii (incl. O. ritro)
2’’ - Bracts lanceolate and slightly shorter to, rarely, slightly longer than corolla. Inflorescence usually dense to very dense, longer than stem. Corolla yellowish or pale pink. Caucasus and Transcaucasia. Parasite of Cephalaria: O. grossheimii
3 – Corolla moderately to strongly inflate and distinctly narrowed at base in a more or less conical part up to 1/5 as long as corolla; white to intensely coloured; 12-23 mm long. Bracts lanceolate, shorter or slightly longer than corolla. Stem scales usually rather few and well spaced. Inflorescence never very dense and longer than stem at the same time. Plants of open and sunny habitats (O. krylowii) or growing in half-shaded areas: 4
3 – Corolla rather slender to moderately inflate, slightly narrowed at base; never white; 12-30 mm long. Bract lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate or more or less linear, slightly shorter to much longer than corolla. Stem scales rather few and well spaced or numerous and dense. Inflorescence very dense or rather lax, in O. elatior and O. laserpiti-sileris usually longer than stem. Plants usually growing in open and sunny habitats: 6
4 – Corolla pure white or light yellowish; abruptly inflated beyond base, up to 22 mm long and longer than bract. Lower corolla lip almost entire of with just few small denticles. Inflorescence rather lax, usually longer than stem. Plants glabrous to slightly hairy. Calyx shorter than ½ of corolla. Parasite of Thalictrum. Russia and Albania: O. krylowii
4’ – Corolla pure white or light yellowish; moderately to rather inflated beyond base, 18-25 mm long and longer than bract. Lower corolla lip almost entire of with just few small denticles. Inflorescence rather dense, shorter than stem. Plants hairy with short hairs. Calyx longer than ½ of corolla. Parasite of Aconitum lycoctonum. Alps and Pyrenees: O. aconiti-lycoctoni
4’’ – Corolla usually deeply coloured, rarely yellowish; moderately to rather inflated beyond base, 12-23 mm long, longer or shorter than bracts. Lower corolla lip erose. Inflorescence rather dense or rather lax, usually shorter than stem. Plants hairy with short or long hairs. Calyx longer or shorter than ½ of corolla. Parasite of Salvia glutinosa, Petasites spp., Adenostyles spp., Berberis vulgaris: 5
5 – Corolla 12-23 mm long; upper lip more often spreading. Stamens usually densely hairy in lower half. Parasite of Salvia glutinosa: O. salviae
5’ – Corolla 12-20 mm long; upper lip more often spreading. Stamens usually loosely hairy in lower half. Parasite of Berberis vulgaris: O. lucorum
5’’ – Corolla 12-20 mm long; upper lip more often bent upwards. Stamens usually densely hairy in lower half. Parasite of Petasites spp. or Adenostyles spp.: O. flava
6 – Inflorescence usually longer than the above the ground part of stem, rarely shorter or as long as, usually dense to very dense. Bracts narrowly lanceolate or linear, longer than corolla. Stem scales numerous and dense. Corolla 15-26 mm long. Corolla lower lip lobes usually distinctly narrowed at base. Stem thick to very thick. Parasite of Centaurea or Laserpitium siler: 7
6’ – Inflorescence as long as the above the ground part of stem or shorter, from rather lax to dense. Bracts narrowly lanceolate or lanceolate, shorter or longer than corolla. Stem scales rather few and spaced. Corolla 12-25 mm long. Stem never very thick. Corolla lower lip lobes usually not or very slightly narrowed at base. Parasite of Apiaceae: 8
7 – Bracts as long as to slightly longer than corolla. Upper corolla lip not or slightly emarginate. Corolla tubular or only slightly inflate: Parasite of Centaurea, usually C. scabiosa. Central Europe: E. elatior
7’ – Bracts much longer than corolla. Upper corolla lip slightly to distinctly emarginate. Corolla slightly to distinctly inflate. Parasite of Centaurea, usually C. aspera. Spain and SW France, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia: O. leptantha
7’’ – Bracts as long as to slightly longer than corolla. Upper corolla lip slightly to strongly emarginate. Corolla somehow inflate: Parasite of Laserpitium siler or Laserpitium spp. Central Europe: O. laserpiti-sileris
8 – Corolla 18-25 mm long. Parasite of Cervaria rivini: O. alsatica
8’ – Corolla 12-18 mm long. Parasite of Seseli libanotidis: O. bartlingii

Group 7 (Grex Minores)
1A – Corolla usually curved at base and then more or less straight, rarely somehow curved throughout or slightly geniculate towards base, spreading or rarely erecto-patent; 10-18 mm long; never broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; without long hairs on upper side, usually densely glandular-pubescent, rarely sparsely; usually white with purple stripes (yellow or yellowish in yellow-coloured specimens); upper lip bent upwards or spreading. Sepals narrowly triangular, rarely filiform and long. Stigma usually purple or pink, yellow in yellow-coloured plants, rarely white. Bracts lanceolate or, rarely, narrowly triangular, from shorter to, rarely, longer than corolla, brown or purple or yellow in yellow plants. Inflorescence usually lax, rarely rather dense; rarely comose. Parasite usually of Fabaceae but also of Asteraceae, Apiaceae and other families: O. minor
1B - Corolla somehow geniculate towards base (then somehow resembling O. artemisiae-campestris), more or less straight above, spreading or erecto-patent; 18-22 mm long; more or less broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; without long hairs on upper side, usually densely glandular-pubescent, rarely sparsely; usually white with purple stripes; upper lip usually bent upwards, rarely spreading. Sepals narrowly triangular. Stigma usually purple. Bracts lanceolate, shorter to as along as corolla, brown or purple. Inflorescence rather dense; never comose. Parasite of coastal Asteraceae but likely also of other families (possibly growing on Plantago spp., Daucus carota s.l., Crithmum maritimum, etc.): O. litorea
1C – Corolla usually curved at base and then more or less straight, rarely somehow curved throughout or slightly geniculate towards base, spreading or rarely erecto-patent; 15-20 mm long; never considerably broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; with rather long hairs on upper side (thus appearing lanate); usually white, often light yellowish at base and without or with faint purple stripes; upper lip usually bent upwards, rarely spreading. Sepals filiform and long. Stigma usually purple or pink (yellow?). Bracts narrowly triangular, often longer than corolla, yellow at base. Inflorescence often rather dense but also sometimes lax; never comose. Parasite exclusively of Picris spp., usually of P. hieracioides: O. picridis
1D – Corolla usually curved, rarely somehow geniculate towards base, then usually curved on upper side, rarely straight, spreading or rarely erecto-patent; 18-22 mm long; never considerably broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; without long hairs on upper side but just short glandular hairs; white or yellowish with purple stripes; upper lip usually bent upwards, rarely spreading. Sepals narrowly triangular and long, rarely somehow shorter in not well-developed plants. Stigma usually purple or pink (yellow?). Bracts lanceolate, usually shorter to as long as corolla, brown or purple or yellow at base. Inflorescence often rather dense but also sometimes lax; never comose. Parasite exclusively of Artemisia spp., usually of A. campestris: O. artemisiae-campestris
1E – Corolla usually curved, rarely somehow geniculate towards base, then usually curved on upper side, rarely straight, spreading or erecto-patent or even slightly bent downwards; 10-20 mm long; never considerably broadened towards apex, not flattened just below the apex; with very long hairs on upper side (thus appearing very lanate); usually purple in upper half or towards apex and whitish in lower half (yellow or yellowish in yellow-coloured specimens); upper lip usually spreading; rarely bent upwards. Sepals narrowly triangular or filiform and usually long. Stigma usually purple or pink, yellow in yellow-coloured plants, rarely white. Bracts lanceolate or narrowly triangular, from shorter to slightly longer than corolla, brown or purplish. Inflorescence lax or rather dense; never comose. Usually parasite of Asteraceae and Apiaceae but also of other families. Commoner in eastern Mediterrannean and becoming more and more rare westwards, absent in Portugal and western North Africa: O. pubescens
1F – Corolla usually curved, rarely somehow geniculate towards base, then straight or curved on upper side and spreading or even slightly bent downwards; 10-20 mm long; never considerably broadened towards apex, distinctly narrowed just below the apex (plants with more or less uniform corolla diameter are rarely found); without long hairs on upper side but just with sparse short glandular hairs (then usually appearing subglabrous); usually whitish or yellowish with purple stripes (completely yellow-flowered specimens are not rare); upper lip spreading or erect. Sepals narrowly triangular. Stigma usually yellow, extremely rarely purple in deeply pigmented plants. Bracts usually lanceolate and as long as corolla at most, very rarely narrowly triangular and longer than corolla. Inflorescence usually lax, rarely rather dense to very dense; extremely rarely comose, more often with bracts shorter than or as long as corolla. Parasite exclusively of Hedera spp.: O. hederae
1G – Corolla strongly geniculate towards base (forming an angle more or less at 1/3 - 1/4), then straight or slightly curved on upper side and spreading or even slightly bent downwards; 15-25 mm long; usually considerably broadened towards apex (then somehow trumpet-shaped), not flattened just below the apex; without long hairs on upper side, usually rather densely glandular-pubescent; white or yellowish or pinkish with purple or pink stripes. Sepals filiform and long in subsp. amethystea or narrowly triangular in subsp. castellana. Stigma usually purple, rarely yellow. Bracts narrowly triangular and longer than corolla in subsp. amethystea or lanceolate and shorter to longer than corolla in subsp. castellana. Inflorescence rather dense; often comose (with long and narrow bracts overtopping still underdeveloped flowers at apex). Parasite exclusively of Eryngium campestre or Digitalis: O. amethystea

1 – Corolla strongly geniculate towards base (forming an angle more or less at 1/3 – 1/4). Inflorescence rather dense. Parasite exclusively of Eryngium campestre or Digitalis: 2
1’ – Corolla never strongly geniculate towards base or curved throughout. Inflorescence lax to rather dense. Parasite of other families/species: 3
2 – Sepals filiform, often almost as long as corolla. Bracts linear or narrowly triangular, longer than corolla and giving the inflorescence a comose appearance. Parasite exclusive of Eryngium. From the Iberian Peninsula to the Balcans; from Tunisia to Germany: O. amethystea subsp. amethystea (Group 7, Grex Minores)
2’ – Sepals narrowly triangular, much shorter than corolla. Bracts lanceolate, as long as corolla at most. Inflorescence not comose. Parasite of Digitalis. Corsica, France, Spain, Portugal and Morocco: O. amethystea subsp. castellana (Group 7, Grex Minores)
3 – Corolla with a lanate appearance displaying long hairs on upper side. Sepals filiform and often almost reaching corolla apex. Parasite of Picris or of Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Geranium etc.: 4
3’ – Corolla subglabrous or with short hairs, never appearing lanate. Sepals filiform and often almost reaching corolla apex or broader and shorter: 5
4 – Corolla whitish or light yellowish, often yellow at base; often with very faint purple stripes; with moderately long hairs on upper side. Parasite of Picris: O. picridis
4’ – Corolla purple on upper side, extremely rarely yellow throughout; with very long hairs on upper side. Parasite of Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Geranium etc.: O. pubescens
5 – Corolla usually subglabrous; almost always distinctly restricted just below the gorge. Parasite of Hedera: O. hederae
5’ – Corolla distinctly hairy; never restricted just below the gorge. Never parasitizing Hedera: 6
6 – Corolla 12-18 mm long. Inflorescence few-flowered and very lax to rather dense. Parasite of various families/species but never of Artemisia campestris: O. minor
6’ – Corolla 14-22 mm long. Inflorescence rather dense. Parasite exclusively of Artemisia campestris: O. artemisiae-campestris

Group 8 (Grex Speciosae)
1 – Inflorescence few-flowered, lax. Corolla background colour usually white or mostly blue to dark violet, especially towards apex. Corolla slightly curved on upper side; comparatively not much broadening towards apex. Flowers erecto-patent, rarely spreading. Stigma purple. Parasite of Fabaceae. Caucasus, Iran, Russia and Turkey: O. owerinii
1’ – Inflorescence usually many-flowered in well-developed plants (though few-flowered plants are sometimes found), lax or dense. Corolla background colour usually white, often with narrow and relatively faint violet stripes in the rest but sometimes completely white, rarely yellowish at base; rarely curved on upper side, more often straight and comparatively much broadening towards apex. Flowers spreading or rarely erecto-patent. Stigma purple or orange. Parasite of Fabaceae, often on cultivated plants (e.g. Vicia faba, Pisum sativum subsp. sativum). From western Mediterranean to Iran: O. crenata
1’’ – Inflorescence usually many-flowered in well-developed plants (though few-flowered plants are sometimes found), lax or, very rarely, relatively dense. Corolla background colour usually intense being yellow, orange or reddish, rarely whitish or yellowish; straight or slightly curved on upper side. Flowers erecto-patent, rarely spreading. Stigma purple or orange or yellow. Parasite of woody species (Betulaceae, Oleaceae, Fagaceae). Caucasus, Transcaucasia and NE Turkey: O. laxissima

PHELIPANCHE
1 – Plants distinctly lanate with relatively long hairs. Parasite of Artemisia spp. or Moricandia nitens (possibly also on other Brassicaceae): 2
1’ – Plants minutely pubescent to hirsute but never lanate: 3
2 – Inflorescence very dense, long and much longer than stem. Calyx teeth subulate to narrowly triangular. Parasite of Moricandia nitens (possibly also on other Brassicaceae). Israel: P. daninii
2’ – Inflorescence rather lax to dense, never very long, from shorter to much longer than stem. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular. Parasite of Artemisia spp. Central Europe to Eurasia: P. caesia
3 – Inflorescence dense to very dense, often branched: 4
3’ – Inflorescence never very dense, rarely branched: 9
4 - Calyx longer than ½ of corolla and up to 4/5; calyx teeth 2 to 3-times as long as calyx tube, filiform. Parasite of Apiaceae: P. schultzii
4’ - Calyx teeth shorter than as above and/or differently shaped. Parasite of other families: 5
5 - Corolla 25-35 mm long; very broadened in upper half; lilac or light pink, rarely violet; erecto-patent. Corolla lower lip with pointing downwards lobes. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular; as long as or longer than calyx. Parasite of Artemisia spp.: P. arenaria
5’ – Corolla 12-30 mm long, never broadened in upper half and rather thin throughout, coloured as above or much darker. Calyx teeth from subulate to triangular, from shorter to just slightly longer than tube. Pasite of Artemisia spp. (P. purpurea subsp. bohemica) or other families/species: 6
6 – Inflorescence long. Corolla dark purple; 15-20 mm long. Stem thin. Plants sometimes branched. Calyx teeth subulate. Parasite exclusively of Bituminaria bituminosa: P. lavandulacea (incl. subsp. trichocalyx)
6’ – Inflorescence comparatively shorter. Corolla lilac or light pink; 15-30 mm long. Stem rather thin or thick. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular to triangular. Parasite of Centaurea spp. or Artemisia spp.: 7
7 – Calyx teeth distinctly longer than calyx tube and up to twice and long as calyx tube. Parasite of Eryngium spp. Near East: P. heldreichii
7’ – Calyx teeth subequal to calyx tube. Parasite of other species: 8
8 – Corolla thin; pale-coloured and with faint venation; shorter than 21 mm. Stigma white. Stem thick; yellowish; often branched. Parasite of Centaurea spp.: P. portoilicitana
8’ – Corolla not thin; pale-coloured and with distinct venation; shorter than 18 mm. Stigma yellow. Stem not thick; sometimes branched. Parasite of Salvia rosmarinus: P. rosmarina
8’’ – Corolla not thin; not pale-coloured and with distinct venation; 20-30 mm long. Stem not thick; never branched. Parasite of Artemisia spp.: P. purpurea subsp. bohemica
9 – Calyx not longer than ¼ of corolla. Corolla 20-37 mm long, not humped on upper side. Inflorescence lax and usually few-flowered. Calyx teeth triangular, from slightly shorter to slightly longer than tube. Parasite usually of cultivated plants: P. aegyptiaca
9’ – Calyx longer than as above. Corolla 12-35 mm long, humped or not on upper side. Inflorescence lax or dense, few-flowered to many-flowered. Calyx teeth triangular or narrower, shorter to longer than tube. Parasite rarely of cultivated plants: 10
10 – Inflorescence long. Corolla dark purple. Calyx teeth subulate. Parasite exclusively of Bituminaria bituminosa: P. lavandulacea (incl. subsp. trichocalyx)
10’ – Inflorescence rather short. Corolla never dark purple. Calyx teeth subulate or triangular. Plants never parasitizing Bituminaria bituminosa: 11
11 – Corolla 20-35 mm long, very broadened in upper half: 12
11’ – Corolla 12-30 mm, not broadened in upper half: 13
12 – Corolla 25-35 mm long; lilac or light pink, rarely violet; erecto-patent. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular to subulate; much longer than tube. Stem yellowish. Parasite of Artemisia spp.: P. arenaria
12’ – Corolla 20-30 mm long; usually violet, rarely paler; usually spreading. Calyx teeth triangular, from slightly shorter than to slightly longer than tube. Stem, at least in part, purple-flushed. Parasite of Achillea spp.: P. purpurea subsp. millefolii
13 – Corolla 20-30 mm; slightly humped on upper side or not humped; usually with very distinct venation. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular to triangular; from slightly shorter than to slightly longer than tube. Stem always from partly purple-flushed to entirely purple, never completely yellowish. Parasite of Achillea spp. or Artemisia spp.: P. purpurea subsp. purpurea
13’ – Corolla less than 20 mm long (sometimes up to 22 mm long in P. mutelii); not umped or distinctly humped on upper side; usually with a rather faint venation. Calyx teeth from subulate to triangular; from slightly shorter than to longer than tube. Stem purplish or completely yellowish. Never parasitizing Achillea spp. or Artemisia spp.: 14
14 – Corolla with a distinct hump on upper side; spreading or erecto-patent: 15
14’ – Corolla without a distinct hump on upper side, more or less gradually broadened up to apex; erecto-patent: 16
15 – Calyx teeth as long as or shorter than tube, triangular. Flowers erecto-patent. Stem often branched. Corolla light blue to whitish. Parasite of cultivated plants, possibly on wild plants?: P. ramosa
15’ – Calyx teeth longer than tube, subulate to narrowly triangular. Flowers spreading. Stem rarely branched. Corolla blue, rarely light blue or whitish. Parasitizing wild plants: P. nana
16 – Stigma yellow. Calyx teeth triangular. Bracts ovate. Corolla 12-18 mm long; usually pale-coloured, rarely somehow darker. Inflorescence sometimes much longer than stem. Parasite of Salvia rosmarinus. Mediterranean region from Portugal to northern Balkans and Algeria: P. rosmarina
16’ – Stigma white. Calyx teeth narrowly triangular. Corolla 15-20(-22) mm long; rarely pale-coloured. Inflorescence never much longer than stem. Parasite of Asteraceae and other families, rarely also on cultivated plants. Canary Islands, southern Spain, north Africa, Sicily, Malta, Balkans, Greece, Caucasus and Crimea (possibly also elsewhere): P. mutelii

Selected references
Aksoy, E.; Arslan, Z.F.; Öztürk, N. 2013. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel: A new record as a parasitic weed on apricot root in Turkey. Afr. J. Agricult. Res. 8(29): 4001-4006.
Beck von Mannagetta, G. 1890. Monographie der Gattung Orobanche. Bibliotheca Botanica 19: 1-275.
Beck von Mannagetta, G. 1930. Orobanchaceae. In: Engler A, ed. Das Pflanzenreich, vol IV. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, pp. 1-348.
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó. 2002. A propósito de algunas Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) del noroeste peninsular y de su tratamiento en Flora iberica vol. XIV (2001). Docum. Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 1: I-IV+1-44
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó. 2003. Más, a propósito dealgunas Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) del norte y este de la Península Ibérica. Docum. Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 2: 1-45.
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó.; Schneeweiss, G.M. 2005. Más, a propósito de algunas Orobanche L. y Phelipanche Pomel (Orobanchaceae) del oeste del Paleártico. Docum. Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3:1-71.
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó.; Schneeweiss, G.M. 2008. Más, a propósito de algunas Phelipanche Pomel, Boulardia F. W. Schultz y Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) del oeste del Paleártico. Docum. Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 6:1-127.
Carlón, L.; G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó. 2015. What is and What is understood by Orobanche foetida Poir., Voy. Barbarie 2: 195-196? Flora Montiber. 59: 128-134
Carlón, L.; Gómez Casares, G.; Laínz, M.; Moreno Moral, G.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó.; Schneeweiss, G.M. Annotated checklist of host plants of Orobanchaceae. Liérganes, Cantabria, Spain: [accessed: 08 September 2021]. Available from: http://www.farmalierganes.com/flora/angiospermae/orobanchaceae/Host_Orobanchaceae_Checklist.htm.
Domina, G.; Raimondo, F.M. 2009. A new species of Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) from Israel. Fl. Medit. 19: 185-188.
Foley, M.J.Y. 1996. Orobanche clausonis Pomel (Orobanchaceae) in the Iberian peninsula. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 54(1): 319-326.
Guimaraes, J. d' A. 1904. Monographia das Orobanchaceas Portuguezas. Broteria 3: 5-207.
Nikolov, Z. 2019. Orobanche elatior Sutton and Orobanche centaurina Bertol. (Orobanchaceae) in the locality. "Kozjak" (Skopje) in North Macedonia. Acta Mus. Maced. Sci. Nat. 22(1): 13-20.
Novopokrovskii, I.V.; Tzvelev, N.N. 1958. Orobanchaceae Vent. In: Komarov, V.L., (ed.). Flora Unionis Republicarum Socialisticarum Sovieticarum (Flora URSS), vol. 23. Institutum Botanicum nomine V. L. Komarovii Academiae Scientiarum URSS, Mosqua and Leningrad.
Pavon, D.; Tison, J.M.; Michaud, H.; Gourgues, F. 2013. Phelipanche bohemica (Čelak.) Holub & Zázvorka (Orobanchaceae) en France. Biocosme mésogéen, Nice, 30(1): 7-19
Pavon, D. 2015. Contribution à la connaissance et à la conservation des orobanches du département des Bouches–du–Rhône. Bull. Soc. linn. Provence 66: 57-89.
Piwowarczyk, R.; Chmielewski, P.; Gierczyk, B.; Piwowarski, B.; Stachyra, P. 2010. Orobanche pallidiflora Wimm. & Grab. in Poland: distribution, habitat and host preferences. Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 79(3): 197-205.
Piwowarczyk, R. 2012. A revision of distribution and the ecological description of Orobanche picridis (Orobanchaceae) at the NE limit of its geographical range from Poland and Ukraine. Acta Agrobot. 65(1): 91-106.
Piwowarczyk, R. 2012. Orobanche alba subsp. alba and subsp. major (Orobanchaceae) in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, plant communities, hosts, and seed micromorphology. Biodiv. Res. Conserv. 26: 23-38.
Piwowarczyk, R. 2012. Orobanche bohemica Čelak. (Orobanchaceae) at the eastern limit of its geographical range: new data on its distribution in Poland. Biodiv. Res. Conserv. 26: 53-59.
Piwowarczyk, R.; Krajewski, Ł. 2015. Orobanche elatior and O. kochii (Orobanchaceae) in Poland: distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and seed micromorphology. Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 84: 103-123.
Piwowarczyk, R.; D. Kwolek, M. Denysenko, M. Cygan, G. Góralski, H. Ślesak, et al. 2015. Orobanche grenieri (Orobanchaceae), a southwestern European species newly found in Asia. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 52: 411-418.
Piwowarczyk, R. 2018. Orobanche bartlingii Griseb. (Orobanchaceae). In: Nobis, M & al. 2018. Contribution to the flora of Asian and European countries: new national and regional vascular plant records. Bot. Letters 165 (2): 200-222.
Piwowarczyk, R.; Sánchez Pedraja, Ó.; Moreno Moral, G.; Fayvush, G.; Zakaryan, N.; Kartashyan, N.; Aleksanyan, A. 2019. Holoparasitic Orobanchaceae (Cistanche, Diphelypaea, Orobanche, Phelipanche) in Armenia: distribution, habitats, host range and taxonomic problems. Phytotaxa 386(1): 001-106.
Pujadas, A.; Velasco, L. 2000. Comparative studies on Orobanche cernua L. and O. cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 134: 513-527.
Pujadas, A.; Crespo, M.B. 2004. A new species of Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) from south-eastern Spain. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146: 97-102.
Pujadas-Salvá, A.J. 2010. Typification and characterization of Orobanche santolinae Loscos & J. Pardo (Orobanchaceae). Taxon 59: 959-964.
Rumsey, F.J.; Jury, S.L. 1991. An account of Orobanche L. in Britain and Ireland. Watsonia 18: 257-295.
Sánchez Pedraja, Ó.; Moreno Moral, G.; Carlón, L.; Piwowarczyk, R.; Laínz, M.; Schneeweiss, G.M. 2016 [continuously updated]. Index of Orobanchaceae. http://www.farmalierganes.com/Otrospdf/publica/Orobanchaceae%20Index.htm. Liérganes, Cantabria, Spain. ISSN: 2386-9666 (accessed, 08 September 2021)
Stoyanov, K. 2009. Chorology and critical notes on Orobanche subsect. Minores in Bulgaria. Phytologia Balcanica 15(3): 351-360.
Thorogood, C.J.; Rumsey, F.J. 2020. An account of Common Broomrape Orobanche minor (Orobanchaceae) in the British Isles. Brit. Irish Bot. 2(3): 223-239.
Tzvelev, N. 2015. O РОДЕ ЗАРАЗИХА (OROBANCHE L. SENSU LATO, OROBANCHACEAE) В PССИИ. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 46:189-215.
Zázvorka, J. 2010. Orobanche kochii and O. elatior (Orobanchaceae) in central Europe. Acta Musei Moraviae, Sci. Biol. (Brno) 95(2): 77-119.

Ingresado el 07 de septiembre de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

16 de julio de 2021

A prayer for the world in its darkest hour

A prayer for the world in its darkest hour.
May wisdon be regained by our leaders and by people.
May friendship reign among mankind.
May the lust of power of man over man dry out from its deepest roots.

Ingresado el 16 de julio de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

01 de marzo de 2021

Viola alba vs suavis vs odorata

1 - Stipole lineari o strettamente triangolari, verdi o con una tonalità violacea, con alcune fimbrie lunghe disperse più o meno omogeneamente su tutto il margine e altre fimbrie corte(1) (lente o macro). Almeno alcune foglie tra la fine dell'inverno e l'inizio della primavera distintamente più lunghe che larghe e ad apice acuto. Corolla bianca o viola o, raramente con tonalità porpora, con macchia bianca centrale relativamente piccola: Viola alba s.l.
1' - Stipole lanceolate, verdi (mai violacee?), con alcune fimbrie allungate più numerose nella metà superiore(2) (lente o macro). Almeno alcune foglie tra la fine dell'inverno e l'inizio della primavera distintamente più lunghe che larghe e ad apice acuto. Corolla viola o azzurra, con macchia bianca centrale relativamente grande: Viola suavis
1'' Stipole largamente lanceolate, verdi o verde-biancastro, con fimbrie corte e più o meno omogenee lungo tutto il perimetro(3) (lente o macro). Almeno alcune foglie tra la fine dell'inverno e l'inizio della primavera distintamente subrotonde, da più larghe che lunghe a poco più lunghe che larghe e ad apice ottuso. Corolla solitamente porpora, raramente viola o bianca, con macchia bianca centrale relativamente piccola: Viola odorata

(1): https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/6663889/original.jpeg?1490131608
(2): https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/6664122/original.jpeg?1490132553
(3): https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/6664955/original.jpeg?1490136820

Ingresado el 01 de marzo de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 6 comentarios | Deja un comentario

25 de febrero de 2021

Chasmanthe: keys for the species

1 - Perianth segments more or less equal, all spreading or porrect. Perianth base straight or arcuate: Crocosmia spp.
1 - Perianth segments markedly unequal, the upper one pointing forward, the others from slightly reflexed to porrect. Perianth base more or less straight: 2 (Chasmanthe spp.)
2 - Corolla markedly saccate/truncate in lower third and abruptly broadened between the narrow base and the broader upper part. Inflorescence with 20 flowers at most, almost secund with flowers in two ranks forming an acute angle: Chasmanthe aethiopica (possibly extremely rare in the wild outside its area of origin)
2' - Corolla not markedly saccate in lower third and more gradually* broadened between the narrow base and the broader upper part. Inflorescence with less or more than 20 flowers, almost secund with flowers in two ranks forming an acute angle or with flowers in an opposite or a subopposite array: 3
3 - The three lower perianth segments less than 1/4 as long the upper one, usually greenish or yellowish, rarely orangish. Inflorescence almost secund with flowers in two ranks forming an acute angle. Perianth never completely yellow: Chasmanthe bicolor
3' - The three lower perianth segments more than 1/4 as long the upper one, orangish or yellow-orangish (occasionally completely yellow in yellow-flowered varieties). Inflorescence not secund nor subsecund with flowers in two subopposite ranks forming an obtuse angle. Perianth occasionally completely yellow: Chasmanthe floribunda

Alternative key for Chasmanthe
1 - The three lower perianth segments less than 1/4 as long the upper one, usually greenish or yellowish, rarely orangish. Inflorescence almost secund with flowers in two ranks forming an acute angle. Perianth never completely yellow: Chasmanthe bicolor
1' - The three lower perianth segments more than 1/4 as long the upper one, orangish or yellow-orangish (occasionally completely yellow in yellow-flowered varieties). Inflorescence secund or subsecund or with flowers in two subopposite ranks forming an obtuse angle. Perianth occasionally completely yellow: 2
2 - Corolla markedly saccate/truncate in lower third and abruptly broadened between the narrow base and the broader upper part. Inflorescence with 20 flowers at most, almost secund with flowers in two ranks forming an acute angle: Chasmanthe aethiopica (possibly extremely rare in the wild outside its area of origin)
2' - Corolla not markedly saccate in lower third and more gradually* broadened between the narrow base and the broader upper part. Inflorescence with more than 20 flowers, with flowers in two ranks forming an obtuse angle: Chasmanthe floribunda

*: there can be specimens of C. floribunda in which the perianth is somehow abruptly broadened. In these cases, it can be useful a comparison with specimens of C. aethiopica or to take into account the number of flowers per each inflorescence

Literature
De Vos M.P., 1985. Revision of the South African genus Chasmanthe (Iridaceae). S.-Afr. Tydskr. P1antk., 51(4):253-261.
https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82774993.pdf

Ingresado el 25 de febrero de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

15 de febrero de 2021

Free books for the Iberian Peninsula and the western Mediterranean

There is a certain tradition in the area of the Iberian Peninsula to make books freely available in pdf. I can not but agree with this. Knowledge must be free and not prerogative only of the wealthiest.

https://jolube.wordpress.com/libros-en-pdf/

Vegetación y flora de Extremadura
https://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/viewer/12773/?offset=

Claves para la identificación de los géneros de Gramíneas de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares
https://idus.us.es/bitstream/handle/11441/11622/file_1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du nord du Maroc
https://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/records/item/13134-redirection

Index synonymique de la Flore d'Afrique du Nord
http://www.floramaroccana.fr/publications.html

Ingresado el 15 de febrero de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

05 de febrero de 2021

What really are Rosa chinensis and Rosa canina? Cosa sono veramente Rosa chinensis e Rosa canina?

The web is full of photos of cultivated roses named as Rosa chinensis. This can be seen also in websites that are usually considered reliable. Anyway in the vast majortity of cases these roses actually are just ornamental varieties that are the results of hybridizations that started from ancient times and that, in some cases, could hypothetically include the real Rosa chinensis.
Therefore, apart the fact that these "garden roses" actually become wild extremely rarely, and thus these observations in most cases should be flagged as non-wild, they should be named here in iNaturalist just as Rosa. Indeed Rosa chinensis is a well-defined species and interesting info and a well-made description of the wild plants are provided here:
http://www.theheritagerosesgroup.org/articles/rchinensis-spontanea-rix.pdf

Now I ask those who are reading this post if they could not fill up the site with observations of cultivated ornamental roses. In the case they are somehow compelled to post photos of such roses, at least these observationjs should be flagged as non-wild and the depicted plants should not be named as Rosa chinensis.

Similarly, non expert people and generalist websites often refer to many wild roses as Rosa canina. Again, Rosa canina is a well defined species and absolutely not the only one found in natural environments. Here's a description:

Bush up to 3 m tall. Prickles (yes, not thorns nor spines) robust, more or less all of the same size, with enlarged base and gradually narrowing in a hooked apex. Leaflets completely glabrous or with just few glandular hairs on the midrib of lower side. Leaflets marginal teeth entire or few double. Leaf rachis glabrous or with just few glandular hairs. Stipules apex never reflexed. Flowers solitarly or in few-flowered inflorescences. Pedicels glabrous (always without glandular hairs), often a little bit longer than hypanthium (that part often referred as a fruit). Hypanthium glabrous. Two outer sepals divided at margin, all sepals becoming reflexed and soon falling at fructification. Styles forming a hairy cushion (thus not forming a column) shorter than inner stamens. Stylar orifice 0,3-0,8 mm wide. Petals white to pink, never deep pink nor red.

This is the description of Rosa canina in a strict sense as it is interpreted by modern rhodologists. Many other species of the subsection Caninae are distinguished from Rosa canina sensu stricto just by one to four characters and it is hypothesized that the varietal rank could better fit or that they could actually be the results of hybridizations. Unless other proofs that the present taxonomy should not to be adopted anymore are provided, it is preferable to refer as Rosa canina only to those plants that perfectly fit with the description provided here.
Unfortunately it is almost impossible to identify a wild rose belonging to section Caninae (but the same is true for most of the other sections and subsections of the genus Rosa) with just a photo of a flower or of a leafless plant in winter.

La rete è piena di foto di rose coltivate che vengono chiamate Rosa chinensis. Lo si può vedere anche in alcuni siti web considerati solitamente affidabili. Ad ogni modo. nella stragrande maggioranza dei casi queste rose in realtà sono solo varietà ornamentali che sono il risultato di ibridazioni iniziate da tempi antichi e che, in alcuni casi, potrebbero ipoteticamente includere la vera Rosa chinensis.
Pertanto, a parte il fatto che queste "rose da giardino" in realtà diventano selvatiche estremamente raramente, e quindi queste osservazioni nella maggior parte dei casi dovrebbero essere contrassegnate come non selvatiche, dovrebbero essere chiamate qui su iNaturalist solamente Rosa. Infatti la Rosa chinensis è una specie ben definita e qui vengono fornite informazioni interessanti e una descrizione ben fatta delle piante selvatiche:
http://www.theheritagerosesgroup.org/articles/rchinensis-spontanea-rix.pdf

Ora chiedo a chi sta leggendo questo post se potesse non riempire il sito con osservazioni di rose ornamentali coltivate. Nel caso in cui siano in qualche modo obbligati a pubblicare foto di tali rose, che almeno queste osservazioni siano contrassegnate come non selvatiche e le piante raffigurate non siano chiamate Rosa chinensis.

Allo stesso modo, soggetti meno esperti e siti web generalisti si riferiscono spesso a molte rose selvatiche chiamandole Rosa canina. Anche in questo caso, Rosa canina è una specie ben definita e assolutamente non l'unica che si trova in ambienti naturali. Ecco una descrizione:

Cespuglio alto fino a 3 m. Aculei robusti, più o meno tutte della stessa dimensione, con base allargata e restringentisi gradualmente in un apice uncinato. Foglioline completamente glabre o con pochi peli ghiandolari sulla costa mediana della faccia inferiore. Denti marginali delle foglioline interi o pochi doppi. Rachide fogliare glabro o con pochi peli ghiandolari. L'apice delle stipole non è mai ripiegato. Fiori solitari o in infiorescenze di pochi fiori. Pedicelli glabri (sempre senza peli ghiandolari), spesso un po 'più lunghi dell'ipanzio (quello chiamato frutto). Ipanzio glabro. I due sepali esterni sono divisi al margine mentre tutti i sepali cadono precocemente all'inizio della fruttificazione. Gli stili formano un cuscinetto peloso (quindi non formano una colonna) più corto degli stami interni. Orifizio stilare largo 0,3-0,8 mm. Petali dal bianco al rosa, mai rosa intenso né rosso.

Questa è la descrizione della Rosa canina in senso stretto così come viene interpretata dai moderni rodologi. Molte altre specie della sottosezione Caninae si distinguono dalla Rosa canina sensu stricto solo tramite da uno a quattro caratteri e si ipotizza che il rango varietale potrebbe essere più adatto a queste entità oppure queste ultime potrebbero in realtà essere il risultato di ibridazioni. A meno non vengano fornite altre prove che la presente tassonomia non debba più essere adottata, è preferibile riferirsi come Rosa canina solo a quelle piante che si adattano perfettamente alla descrizione qui fornita.
Sfortunatamente è per lo più impossibile identificare una rosa selvatica che appartiene alla sottosezione Caninae (ma ciò è valido anche per quasi tutte le altre sezioni e sottosezioni del genere Rosa) con una sola foto magari di un fiore oppure di una pianta senza foglie osservata durante il periodo invernale.

Ingresado el 05 de febrero de 2021 por blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario