A comparison of adaptive colouration between the common impala (Aepyceros melampus) and the European fallow deer (Dama dama)

Aepyceros melampus https://www.flickr.com/photos/leendert3/28352516078 and https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-female-impala-image20174622

Dama dama https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/192257684

WITH DAMA DAMA IN SUMMER PELAGE (antlers still in velvet)

Features shared between A. melampus and D. dama:

Features differing between A. melampus and D. dama:

  • spotting absent in A. melampus, extensive on back, upper flanks, and haunches in D. dama
  • anterior/ventral surface of neck medium-tone in A. melampus, broadly pale in D. dama
  • anterior auricular flag present in A. melampus, absent in D. dama
  • posterior surface of ear pinna is broadly dark apically in A. melampus, plain-coloured in D. dama
  • pedal flag present in A. melampus, absent in D. dama
  • metatarsal gland-tuft conspicuously dark in A. melampus, inconspicuous in D. dama
  • posterior surface of ear pinna is broadly dark apically in A. melampus, plain-coloured in D. dama
  • flag absent on hindquarters (with relaxed tail) in A. melampus; ischiopygal flag present in D. dama
  • dark marking on crown present in A. melampus, absent in D. dama
  • buccal semet present in A. melampus, absent in D. dama
  • patch of bare (dark) skin at stifle-fold present in A. melampus, absent in D. dama
  • tongue dark in A. melampus, flesh-coloured in D. dama (https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-fallow-deer-dama-dama-sticking-tongue-out-91559034.html?imageid=519B7957-9524-4B31-AE67-7D04C055D59C&p=265029&pn=1&searchId=92c7e2275b61caf4ea73e5d8dd166422&searchtype=0)

One of the greatest differences is that D. dama is more variable, in various ways, than A. melampus. This is true ontogenetically, sexually, seasonally, and individually. Dama dama is actually colour-polymorphic. The variation may originally have also been greater subspecifically. However, this is unknowable, because of the long history of anthropogenic influence on D. dama, all populations of which are now there because they have been put there by the human species.

Both spp. are extreme w.r.t. variation. Dama dama is exceptionally variable, even among deer, in terms of colour-polymorphism. For its part, A. melampus is exceptionally uniform, even among comparable bovids.

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-fallow-deer-doe-dama-dama-uk-42104660.html?imageid=EF47B4DB-8F54-4EAF-BD6C-D5B5EED7C93A&p=27177&pn=1&searchId=cacca8f92893b0ba68fa8a2d5fa46476&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/doe-and-fawn-fallow-deer-dama-dama-in-autumn-colors-image232799567.html?imageid=6371DEC7-650D-4969-A250-36329F0DE2BB&p=788497&pn=1&searchId=cacca8f92893b0ba68fa8a2d5fa46476&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-fallow-deer-doe-in-the-forest-of-dean-21524574.html?imageid=B7147E3E-561B-4FA9-99EA-4A3480822A8E&p=15397&pn=1&searchId=cacca8f92893b0ba68fa8a2d5fa46476&searchtype=0

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fallow-deer-58347535 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/female-fallow-deer-90785849

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/gazelle-cub-mother-baby-1640132227

https://es.123rf.com/photo_119926963_gamo-dama-dama-hembra-corriendo-sobre-el-c%C3%A9sped-en-dyrehave-dinamarca.html?is_plus=1

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fallow-deer-dama-czech-republic-593202779

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fallow-deer-during-winter-time-autumn-2242860565 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fallow-deer-during-winter-time-autumn-2242387029

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fallow-deer-58237450

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fallowdeerdama-dama-95803978

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fallow-deer-dama-amsterdamse-waterleidingduinen-netherlands-125384627

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/young-deer-fawn-closeup-jutland-denmark-23261266

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/portrait-fallow-deer-on-meadow-next-1212389272

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/full-length-view-beautiful-brown-horned-1308312208

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/english-deer-countryside-58516630

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-grazing-on-slope-hill-738888025 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-grazing-on-slope-hill-738500269 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-grazing-on-slope-hill-738888022 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/portrait-deer-nice-antlers-738887989 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/portrait-deer-nice-antlers-738888001 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-grazing-on-slope-hill-1538757689 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-grazing-on-slope-hill-1538757692 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-grazing-on-slope-hill-1538757710 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-grazing-on-slope-hill-1538757716 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/portrait-deer-against-grass-background-1538757737 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-grazing-alpine-meadows-bavaria-retro-197791982 and https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/portrait-deer-against-grass-background-1538757737

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/full-length-view-beautiful-brown-horned-1308312214

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-cage-waiting-food-292529354

Publicado el febrero 22, 2024 11:39 TARDE por milewski milewski

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COMPARISON OF SETTING OF EYES IN AEPYCEROS AND DAMA

AEPYCEROS

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/impala-face-gm686645948-126161995

https://www.fresnochaffeezoo.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/01/iStock-1414052997-scaled.jpg

https://www.pexels.com/photo/impala-in-close-up-photography-10740874/

DAMA

Summer pelage

https://www.everypixel.com/image-7418574913052067611

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-young-fallow-deer-close-up-image34719342

https://tisuperet.xyz/product_details/20527093.html

https://stock.adobe.com/images/portrait-of-a-female-fallow-deer-dama-dama/296395830?prev_url=detail

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=deer+face&asset_id=296395830

Winter pelage

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-portrait-cute-fallow-deer-hind-looking-camera-dama-dama-image69112306

https://www.alamy.com/fallow-deer-doe-dama-dama-portrait-bavaria-germany-image466958664.html?imageid=F6069E59-A13C-4224-B8BC-9BF9814797A1&p=1814845&pn=1&searchId=cacca8f92893b0ba68fa8a2d5fa46476&searchtype=0

https://pixabay.com/photos/fallow-deer-doe-portrait-pasture-4999841/

https://www.alamy.com/fallow-deer-doe-dama-dama-portrait-bavaria-germany-image466958674.html?imageid=3F114176-E9FD-4A2A-863C-CA2200E5B35C&p=1814845&pn=1&searchId=cacca8f92893b0ba68fa8a2d5fa46476&searchtype=0

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-portrait-fallow-deer-hind-over-sky-looking-camera-image69112286

https://www.dreamstime.com/deer-portrait-looking-camera-wild-animal-fallow-fawn-dama-wildlife-nature-outdoor-image273768000

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-portrait-beautiful-fallow-deer-doe-looking-camera-dama-dama-image69112275

Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses

PEDAL FLAG IN AXIS AXIS

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-young-axis-deer-male-searching-food-ground-profile-image-beautiful-buck-soil-forest-picture-taken-image75789206

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-axis-deer-buck-profile-image-cute-specie-also-known-as-chital-spotted-picture-taken-pforzheim-germany-image75789248

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-spotted-deer-male-profile-image-lovely-axis-buck-looking-to-camera-picture-taken-pforzheim-baden-wuerttemberg-image75788929

https://www.dreamstime.com/spotted-deer-axis-national-park-ranthambore-male-spotted-deer-axis-grazes-known-as-chital-ranthambore-national-reserve-image106173358

https://www.dreamstime.com/spotted-deer-axis-national-park-ranthambore-male-grazes-known-as-chital-reserve-india-image105458989

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-spotted-deer-pench-tiger-reserve-national-park-seoni-district-its-name-river-image85972597

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-closeup-cheetal-deer-pench-tiger-reserve-national-park-seoni-district-its-name-river-image85972471

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-spotted-deer-pench-national-park-seoni-district-its-name-river-image85628127

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-spotted-deer-pench-tiger-reserve-national-park-seoni-district-its-name-river-image85972928

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-cheetal-deer-pench-national-park-seoni-district-its-name-river-image85628065

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-cheetal-deer-pench-national-park-seoni-district-its-name-river-image85628110

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-cheetal-deer-pench-national-park-seoni-district-its-name-pench-river-image85972677

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STOTTING IN ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/young-buck-deer-in-central-montana-gm1361656244-433971994?phrase=deer+running+animal+blurred+motion&searchscope=image%2Cfilm and https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/young-buck-deer-in-central-montana-gm1361656301-433972046?phrase=deer+running+animal+blurred+motion&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mule-deer-bounding-at-big-hole-national-battlefield-montana-usa-53379225.html?imageid=730957C5-8249-4409-9539-876CC227B421&p=174401&pn=1&searchId=94989157e2073ce1b99b35b5fa200eb8&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mule-deer-bounding-on-snow-covered-field-10728110.html?imageid=4848F5B8-40EE-4EDE-AF0A-3F38440CC906&p=4726&pn=2&searchId=f048e93b15093417ba5ea146ffd21530&searchtype=0

https://petereades.photoshelter.com/image/I000021Up4Tkw3LI and https://petereades.photoshelter.com/image/I0000PVbRWhF5uYM

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/prairie-deer-saskatchewan-gm1953479708-557358161?phrase=large+running+mule+deer&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/black-tailed-mule-deer-odocoileus-hemionus-gm175224325-22633462?phrase=large+running+mule+deer&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/stag-deer-running-fast-across-dirt-road-gm1372645457-441704655?phrase=large+running+mule+deer&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/mule-deer-in-yellow-stone-gm1750423086-543753423?phrase=large+running+mule+deer&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/mule-deer-running-beside-harvested-field-in-montana-gm1297691491-390758660?phrase=large+running+mule+deer&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/mule-deer-doe-jump-run-gm172356051-4067117?phrase=large+running+mule+deer&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/young-buck-deer-in-central-montana-gm1361656244-433971994?phrase=large+running+mule+deer&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/wild-deer-on-the-high-plains-of-colorado-gm899371734-248171354?phrase=large+running+mule+deer&searchscope=image%2Cfilm

https://www.vecteezy.com/photo/6224656-mule-deer-buck-bounding-over-prairie

https://www.alamy.com/two-mule-deer-bucks-bounding-through-a-field-in-southwestern-alberta-image8462910.html?imageid=64C2BC31-D50A-4F77-9290-AA1A5D76EE27&p=4726&pn=2&searchId=f048e93b15093417ba5ea146ffd21530&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/two-mule-deer-bucks-bounding-through-a-field-in-the-missouri-coteau-image8463315.html?imageid=17F80FB7-B048-4152-AE86-A78BFB512CCC&p=4726&pn=2&searchId=f048e93b15093417ba5ea146ffd21530&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/a-mule-deer-buck-bounding-away-in-scenic-saskatchewan-image5573118.html?imageid=F946DC9B-BCD1-4C40-852C-1576A7DA88D1&p=4726&pn=2&searchId=f048e93b15093417ba5ea146ffd21530&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/mule-deer-fawn-bounding-in-scenic-southern-saskatchewan-in-western-image4272074.html?imageid=746C9A33-489C-47C4-B337-7328D1C5B93E&p=4726&pn=2&searchId=f048e93b15093417ba5ea146ffd21530&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/mule-deer-doe-and-fawn-bounding-in-a-field-in-scenic-saskatchewan-image7890278.html?imageid=DDBED4C7-0D28-4788-A06A-3E8559D7C6B6&p=4726&pn=2&searchId=f048e93b15093417ba5ea146ffd21530&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/mule-deer-doe-and-fawn-bounding-in-a-field-in-scenic-saskatchewan-image7890271.html?imageid=BEF6E2FE-9974-4A2A-AA48-8DB5791375DF&p=4726&pn=2&searchId=f048e93b15093417ba5ea146ffd21530&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/mule-deer-doe-and-fawn-bounding-in-a-field-in-scenic-saskatchewan-image7890274.html?imageid=9900E2B7-EEB6-4E98-A62A-EF21777D03CA&p=4726&pn=2&searchId=f048e93b15093417ba5ea146ffd21530&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/mule-deer-doe-and-fawn-bounding-in-a-field-in-scenic-saskatchewan-image7890276.html?imageid=599DAA55-7330-4D79-820C-C1E2EBC6BC01&p=4726&pn=2&searchId=f048e93b15093417ba5ea146ffd21530&searchtype=0

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-jumping-fawn-young-mule-deer-bounds-colorado-flower-meadow-image98606077

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/mule-deer-mid-leap-running-bounding-349985870

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/panorama-watchful-mule-deer-jumping-early-1315276157

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/mountain-deer-bounding-mid-air-2423566347

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/female-deer-bounding-colorado-mountains-1569578461

https://fr.dreamstime.com/stotting-blanc-nord-ouest-coup%C3%A9-queue-virginianus-i-d-odocoileus-cerfs-communs-image106299321

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-maultier-rotwild-odocoileus-hemionus-yellowstone-nationalpark-wyoming-usa-89350182.html?imageid=98C96F94-F0AB-4880-B1C9-D674266ACEB6&p=12795&pn=8&searchId=b00d455a77ed1390c0f283dfa1b18de0&searchtype=0

Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-blackbuck-magische-cervicapra-sprang-im-velavadar-national-park-gujarat-indien-90351525.html?imageid=E80FCE27-8437-4238-8A2D-EFE664FAF401&p=43031&pn=9&searchId=8b46c7851144992c19b88e2fc6bda5e0&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-blackbuck-magische-cervicapra-sprang-im-velavadar-national-park-gujarat-indien-90351047.html?imageid=CD87A8DB-43F4-4687-8906-DE31990EAF1E&p=43031&pn=9&searchId=8b46c7851144992c19b88e2fc6bda5e0&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-blackbuck-magische-cervicapra-sprang-im-velavadar-national-park-gujarat-indien-90351066.html?imageid=B1D8B77E-4C55-47A2-9F63-6C885CF7C3C3&p=43031&pn=9&searchId=8b46c7851144992c19b88e2fc6bda5e0&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-blackbuck-magische-cervicapra-sprang-im-velavadar-national-park-gujarat-indien-90351029.html?imageid=A0556EB6-8F10-4292-B0F4-CF854704C906&p=43031&pn=9&searchId=8b46c7851144992c19b88e2fc6bda5e0&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-blackbuck-magische-cervicapra-sprang-im-velavadar-national-park-gujarat-indien-90351040.html?imageid=71442177-2022-4336-AF8C-7E4A6201AD89&p=43031&pn=10&searchId=f81278276b618dba55ec5dd00139e5f5&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-blackbuck-magische-cervicapra-sprang-im-velavadar-national-park-gujarat-indien-90351487.html?imageid=6DE7D668-D9AC-43D2-8099-2C5C7BB807D2&p=43031&pn=10&searchId=f81278276b618dba55ec5dd00139e5f5&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-blackbuck-magische-cervicapra-sprang-im-velavadar-national-park-gujarat-indien-90351034.html?imageid=1426D1AE-DC19-4E08-B2B2-21F7A176593A&p=43031&pn=10&searchId=f81278276b618dba55ec5dd00139e5f5&searchtype=0

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https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-springbok-streifengnus-zeigt-das-weisse-fell-wuchs-auf-den-unteren-rucken-18765013.html?imageid=071069B0-F0F4-41A6-87AA-39D4EA3F13E5&p=34420&pn=9&searchId=8b46c7851144992c19b88e2fc6bda5e0&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/springbok-pronking-in-kalahari-semi-desert-botswana-image471798516.html?imageid=9FF67DB7-E45B-4A8F-B8DB-52AF57885772&p=178591&pn=9&searchId=8b46c7851144992c19b88e2fc6bda5e0&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/springbok-pronking-in-kalahari-semi-desert-botswana-image471798474.html?imageid=6C713FBC-8BB5-40CF-8CE6-8C1CE2F9BB08&p=178591&pn=10&searchId=f81278276b618dba55ec5dd00139e5f5&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/springbock-pronking-im-hohen-gras-image335116697.html?imageid=D4E2ACD2-3496-44C4-8037-35C14D15AD7A&p=1223971&pn=11&searchId=ad79fcfafadfd24a3d1c8565b9670387&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/springbock-pronking-in-der-zentralen-kalahari-image335122994.html?imageid=CCAD8A68-FCE5-4B37-AA5A-EE7F3E8FC906&p=1223971&pn=11&searchId=ad79fcfafadfd24a3d1c8565b9670387&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/zwei-springbocke-pronking-im-gras-in-der-zentralen-kalahari-botswana-image156315578.html?imageid=9AAAD91A-00F9-4335-81F2-81E2A7C25570&p=298586&pn=13&searchId=951b7f397544bb39d13fc6e2b127b5c1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/springbock-pronking-im-gras-in-der-zentralen-kalahari-botswana-image156315566.html?imageid=61323F2E-368A-4D63-8161-5941E065072B&p=298586&pn=13&searchId=951b7f397544bb39d13fc6e2b127b5c1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/springbock-pronking-im-gras-in-der-zentralen-kalahari-botswana-image156315571.html?imageid=4AB5B997-F050-4F6C-8B33-39282FA761A8&p=298586&pn=14&searchId=4a55cb59cd6741edb2076ac2c0ab3bb4&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/springbock-pronking-im-gras-in-der-zentralen-kalahari-botswana-image156315581.html?imageid=3EFFFC31-97D4-434C-9B77-FEABBD322235&p=298586&pn=14&searchId=4a55cb59cd6741edb2076ac2c0ab3bb4&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-springbok-streifengnus-das-hohe-gras-in-die-zentrale-kalahari-botswana-144770220.html?imageid=EE7B34BC-3C25-4903-89CF-9C7EF6F09BBE&p=298586&pn=14&searchId=4a55cb59cd6741edb2076ac2c0ab3bb4&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.de/stockfoto-springbok-streifengnus-das-hohe-gras-in-die-zentrale-kalahari-botswana-144770218.html?imageid=4CCDD3C0-7650-4C3D-AA66-097CDBB178A0&p=298586&pn=14&searchId=4a55cb59cd6741edb2076ac2c0ab3bb4&searchtype=0

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https://www.alamy.de/rehe-mannlich-buck-bei-sonnenaufgang-in-einer-wiese-voller-hohe-graser-und-andere-vegetation-image158258482.html?imageid=C0532189-CB92-428D-A9E5-A276A6C56110&p=54622&pn=14&searchId=4a55cb59cd6741edb2076ac2c0ab3bb4&searchtype=0

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Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses
Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses
Publicado por milewski hace 4 meses

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