Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Ostrácodos (Clase Ostracoda)

Observ.

jwwalker

Fecha

Agosto 30, 2022 a las 07:32 TARDE CDT

Descripción

No idea what this is

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

bennett-s

Fecha

Julio 10, 2022 a las 07:55 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Cow horn shaped diatom-like organism with longitudinal striations from end-to-end

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Marzo 2021

Descripción

The 1st and 2nd photos are enlargements of sections of the colony when first encountered, i.e, when the cells were only loosely associated. Photos 3 through 10 capture the relatively rapid aggregation of the cells into a tight cluster; aggregation appeared near maximum within 1.5 minutes after the start of the observation. I suspect exposure to the focused illumination from the scope somehow triggered the aggregation.
Amazing to witness! Interesting (and fast!) signaling biochemistry at play here! ...or is this similar to the coordinated flight of bird flocks, relying on "visual" cues?
Water sample collected from a vernal stream, near moss-covered rocks and leaf-covered bottom; water depth 4-5 inches with very little flow. Air temp 55F

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

gpmatthews

Fecha

Marzo 19, 2017 a las 05:57 TARDE UTC

Descripción

Gastronauta membranaceus
Microscope: Leitz Dialux
Ocular: 10x GF Periplan
Objective: 40/0.70 NPL Fluotar ICT (DIC)
Sample from garden pond
Flash

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Diatomeas (Clase Bacillariophyceae)

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Marzo 29, 2022 a las 05:34 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Mag. 400x
Fragment of a tube-dwelling Navicula sp. colony? (Looks more like Navicula than Cymbella and Frustula, both of which have tube-dwelling varieties). I count 7 cells in this package... 8 would make more sense if the number is linked to binary replication. Also interesting is the size variation; e.g. in the 3rd panel from the left one sees a small cell in the foreground with a mix of much larger cells behind (makes one wonder about the replicational relationship among the cells... perhaps there is none).

  • On 3/29/2022 a water and moss sample were taken from the submerged section of a boulder in the Billings-Avery Brook. Air temp. 38F

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Nemátodos (Filo Nematoda)

Observ.

golfopolikayakl

Fecha

Abril 24, 2022 a las 05:09 MAÑANA CEST

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Cianobacterias Espirulina (Género Spirulina)

Observ.

maricel-patino

Fecha

Mayo 31, 2024 a las 10:11 TARDE WEST

Descripción

Found in water collected from a rice canal.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Nemátodos (Filo Nematoda)

Observ.

goldfjnch

Fecha

Marzo 2022

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Nemátodos (Filo Nematoda)

Observ.

golfopolikayakl

Fecha

Marzo 17, 2022 a las 01:25 TARDE CET

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Diatomeas (Clase Bacillariophyceae)

Observ.

laneallen

Fecha

Agosto 15, 2021 a las 12:00 MAÑANA MDT

Descripción

All specimens from the Colorado Front Range.

Scale Bar = 10 µm.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Hongos de Saco, Levaduras Y Parientes (Filo Ascomycota)

Observ.

maricel-patino

Fecha

Mayo 25, 2024 a las 04:28 TARDE WEST

Descripción

On an orchid leaf.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Diente de León (Taraxacum officinale)

Fecha

Abril 2021

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Euglenas (Filo Euglenozoa)

Observ.

valve

Fecha

Febrero 5, 2022 a las 01:33 TARDE UTC

Descripción

freshwater constructed wetland.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

valve

Fecha

Enero 24, 2022 a las 08:12 MAÑANA UTC

Descripción

Freshwater

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

amayakan

Fecha

Marzo 26, 2022

Descripción

Video: https://youtu.be/sfbkRjOaZI0

Photos are snapshots of the same individual in the video

Cell size: 48 µm in length (excluding flagella)

Site of sample collection: Pavilion, Katsurashima Ryokuchi north pond (a freshwater habitat), Sendai, Japan

Date of sample collection: March 26th 2022

Weather: Cloudy

Water temp.: 9.0°C

pH 6.4

Date of observation: March 27th 2022 (the collected sample in a plastic container was left near a window out of direct sunlight at room temperature until observation)

Bright field observation using a Wraymer microscope (model BX-3500TL, Osaka, Japan) equipped with a Floyd-2 HDMI ethernet digital camera (Wraymer, Osaka, Japan). The accuracy of the scale bar was confirmed by using a stage micrometer glass slide (1 div. = 10 µm; Wraymer, Osaka, Japan) at each magnification.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Diciembre 31, 2021 a las 06:39 TARDE EST

Descripción

Mag. 400x
Choanoflagellates (on a filament of Eunotia sp.).... perhaps genus Salpingoeca as seen here https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/85163828 and http://cfb.unh.edu/phycokey/Choices/Amoebae_Flagellates_Ciliates/Choanoflagellates/SALPINGOECA/Salpingoeca_Image_page.html#pic02.

  • A pond-side water sample was taken on 12/27/2021 using a 10µ dip net. About 1/4" of ice had to be broken and pushed aside to access the water. Air temp. 36°F.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Octubre 2, 2021 a las 09:49 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Mag. 400x
Helical cyanobacteria with crosswalls that are difficult to see, but present (indicated by black arrows where they are distinct). Specie: possibly A. jenneri as seen here https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330579181_Detailed_characterization_of_the_Arthrospira_type_species_separating_commercially_grown_taxa_into_the_new_genus_Limnospira_Cyanobacteria.
A pond edge water sample (freshwater) was taken on 10/1/2021 using a 10 micron dip net to enrich for microorganisms.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Junio 10, 2024 a las 11:57 TARDE CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

amayakan

Fecha

Marzo 26, 2022

Descripción

Video: https://youtu.be/gAYpJMw-Zp8

Photos are snapshots of the same individual in the video

Cell size: 16 µm in length, 11 µm in width

Site of sample collection: Pavilion, Katsurashima Ryokuchi north pond (a freshwater habitat), Sendai, Japan

Date of sample collection: March 26th 2022

Weather: Cloudy

Water temp.: 9.0°C

pH 6.4

Date of observation: March 27th 2022 (the collected sample in a plastic container was left near a window out of direct sunlight at room temperature until observation)

Bright field observation using a Wraymer microscope (model BX-3500TL, Osaka, Japan) equipped with a Floyd-2 HDMI ethernet digital camera (Wraymer, Osaka, Japan). The accuracy of the scale bar was confirmed by using a stage micrometer glass slide (1 div. = 10 µm; Wraymer, Osaka, Japan) at each magnification.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Junio 11, 2024 a las 10:30 TARDE CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Fecha

Junio 6, 2024 a las 12:07 MAÑANA MSK

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

plingfactory

Fecha

Junio 24, 2021 a las 10:22 MAÑANA CEST

Descripción

Bdelloid rotifer with a "saddle" out of detritus; several specimens found, always with a "saddle". Seems not yet described in the literature. More on this here:
https://www.plingfactory.de/Science/Atlas/KennkartenTiere/Rotifers/01RotEng/source/Bdelloid_20.html

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Diatomeas (Clase Bacillariophyceae)

Observ.

w_martin

Fecha

Septiembre 16, 2021 a las 01:22 TARDE AEST

Descripción

Phytoplankton

Stacked Photos

Protozoans

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Protozoarios (Reino Protozoa)

Observ.

woodillj

Fecha

Julio 3, 2021 a las 05:01 TARDE PDT

Descripción

  • from marine sample (sand and water), collected at shoreline
  • objective(s) (x 10): 600x
  • approximate dimensions: body: 15 µm, longest axis; flagella: 23 µm
  • video on Vimeo

- ID: ELPB-LGT40

  • Body apparently rigid and perhaps bilaterally symmetrical.
  • Eight ~~nine~~ (?) flagella emerge from spiky/knobby protuberances.
  • Organism is transparent and internal structures are not readily apparent in brightfield.
  • 'Walks' or glides along using flagella, sometimes pushing off and 'coasting' (see animated GIF #2 or above-linked video).
  • Often, flagella not immediately applied to locomotion are waved busily about (see animated GIF #1 or above-linked video).

Etiquetas

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Junio 4, 2021 a las 02:59 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Mag. 400x (progression of focal planes)
Pollen? Anyone one know of a handy online reference for identifying the pollen of various plants?
A pond-edge water sample was collected on 6/2/2021 using a 10 micron dip net to enrich for microorganisms. Air temp. 67F

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

peptolab

Fecha

Junio 5, 2024 a las 10:27 MAÑANA EDT

Descripción

Colpoda cucullus O.F. Muller, 1773 from algae-infused water wrung from fallen leaves that spent the winter submerged on my swimming pool cover. Imaged in Nomarski DIC on Olympus BH2S using SPLANAPO 40 0.95 objective and SPLAN 100 1.25 oil objective with slide oiled to the condenser. The cells measure from 80-100 um in length. We can clearly see the two most important characters which differentiate C. cuculus from other species in the genus: the stellate endosome of the spherical macronucleus and the anterior keel with 9-10 indentations.

" 40-110 um long; anterior keel with 8 to10 indentations; 29-34 ciliary grooves; cilia mostly paired; macro nucleus with a stellate endosome; trichocysts rod-form; usually with abundant food vacuoles; in fresh water with decaying plants" (1).

"Body distinctly reniform in shape, dorso-ventrally flattened. Right body edge strongly convex, left body edge concave often appearing as through a bite had been taken from it. A shallow diagonal somatic groove (not easily visible) originating on the dorsal surface travels round left side to entrance of vestibulum on the flattened ventral surface. Ciliation uniform in longitudinal or oblique orientated grooves. Several notches which denote ciliary grooves often visible on preoral part of left body edge. Caudal cilia may be present on some species. There is a horse-shoe shaped arc of closely-set cilia on the right of the vestibular entrance. Single rounded macronucleus with 1, 2 or 3 micronuclei. Single terminal contractile vacuole. Division takes place in thin-walled cysts, thick-walled protective cysts also formed" (2).

"Morphology Length 40-120 um, average about 80 um; broadly reniform, anterior keel with 8-10 indentations; uniform ciliation; buccal cavity with a deep oral funnel starting at a groove near the left side of the body, the buccal cavity leads to a diagonal groove on the dorsal surface (not evident in the figure), buccal cavity ciliated but without membranes or membranelles; 1 spherical macronucleus, exhibiting a stellate endosome; 1 micronucleus; a single terminal contractile vacuole; in the presence of a good food supply, the body is packed with food inclusions and appears very dark; fission only takes place within reproductive cysts" (3).

" Colpoda cucullus, previously considered a "soil" protozoan, is predominantly a vegetation-associated species that is especially adapted, through its ability to encyst and excyst rapidly, to exploit the fluctuating moisture content of the terrestrial environment. Three means of distribution were discovered which explain the ubiquity of this species. Herbivores consume Colpoda cysts while feeding on infested vegetation and deposit them with their feces; the cysts are transported by honey-bees along with pollen grains; and they are also carried through air like pollen. Dew induces excystment and contains sufficient nutritional substances to support profuse growth and reproduction" (4).

  1. PROTOZOOLOGY By RICHARD R. KUDO. CHARLES C THOMAS • PUBLISHER Springfield, Illinois. 1954. pp 745-6.
  2. Colin R. Curds "British and other freshwater ciliated protozoa Part I Ciliophora: Kinetofragminophora" Cambridge University Press, 1982
  3. CILIATED PROTOZOA. An illustrated guide to the species used as biological indicators in freshwater biology HARTMUT BICK. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION GENEVA 1972 pp 64-5.
  4. Colpoda cucullus: A Terrestrial Aquatic.Jo Anne Mueller, Wayne P. Mueller. The American Midland N

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

nclercin

Fecha

Noviembre 7, 2012 a las 02:30 TARDE CET

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

nclercin

Fecha

Noviembre 7, 2012 a las 02:30 TARDE CET
Fungi

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Hongos (Reino Fungi)

Observ.

ikhom

Fecha

Octubre 27, 2020 a las 12:41 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Black mold (anamorphic fungi) on very wet wood.
Conidia dark, measure in H2O
(5.6) 5.7 - 7.3 (7.5) × (3.1) 3.15 - 3.7 (4) µm
Q = (1.4) 1.6 - 2.2 (2.3) ; N = 20
Me = 6.5 × 3.5 µm ; Qe = 1.9

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

zookanthos

Fecha

Julio 7, 2020

Etiquetas

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Algas Doradas (Clase Chrysophyceae)

Observ.

zookanthos

Fecha

Noviembre 25, 2019

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Algas Doradas (Clase Chrysophyceae)

Observ.

zookanthos

Fecha

Noviembre 25, 2019

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

heelsplitter

Fecha

Julio 9, 2018

Descripción

Growing on and apparently deforming a Cantharellus minor fruiting body. Conidiophores difficult to view. Conidia hyaline, thick-walled, warty and with 2 guttules. Conidia measurements: (17.8) 19.8 – 22.4 (23.6) × (9.5) 11.1 – 12.4 (12.7) µm, Q = (1.6) 1.64 – 1.9 (2); N = 30, Me = 21 × 11.7 µm; Qe = 1.8

Fotos / Sonidos

Fecha

Mayo 30, 2024 a las 11:55 MAÑANA MSK

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Cianobacteria Nostoc (Nostoc commune)

Observ.

davidfbird

Fecha

Marzo 27, 2024 a las 02:34 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Large patch on flooded floor of the abandoned limestone quarry. Lots of heterocytes.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Escarabajos de Pantanos (Familia Scirtidae)

Observ.

onotole

Fecha

Mayo 19, 2024 a las 06:56 TARDE +07

Descripción

A larvae from a puddle. Thanks to Давид from "Энтомологический клуб" Telegram channel for ID.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

onotole

Fecha

Mayo 21, 2024 a las 05:21 TARDE +07

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

onotole

Fecha

Mayo 25, 2024 a las 04:47 TARDE +07

Descripción

В скрученных краснеющих листьях яблони.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

heelsplitter

Fecha

Junio 10, 2018

Descripción

Growing on a hardwood stick with another discomycete (observation 320068). All structures inamyloid. Excipulum composed of irregular brownish (in Melzer’s reagent) cells. Paraphyses filiform. Asci 8-spored, pleurorhynchous, inoperculate, unitunicate and clavate. Asci measured with Piximetre: 36.37 × 4.91 µm, 26.74 × 5.29 µm, 30.29 × 4.06 µm, 28.21 × 4.62 µm

Spores smooth, hyaline, non-septate and biguttulate. Spore measurements from Piximetre: (4.2) 4.5 – 5.3 (5.8) × (1.6) 1.7 – 2.1 (2.3) µm, Q = (2.1) 2.2 – 3.1 (3.2); N = 20, Me = 4.9 × 1.9 µm; Qe = 2.6

Individual spores: 4.67 × 2.19 µm, 4.73 × 1.78 µm, 5.04 × 2.00 µm, 4.85 × 2.12 µm, 4.69 × 2.02 µm, 4.78 × 1.70 µm, 5.84 × 2.28 µm, 5.23 × 1.65 µm, 4.63 × 1.84 µm, 5.19 × 2.06 µm, 4.87 × 1.64 µm, 4.54 × 1.72 µm, 4.90 × 2.03 µm, 4.66 × 1.80 µm, 4.39 × 2.00 µm, 4.60 × 1.75 µm, 5.29 × 1.70 µm, 5.59 × 1.79 µm, 4.23 × 2.04 µm, 4.62 × 1.57 µm

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

crseaquist

Fecha

Abril 17, 2024 a las 09:22 MAÑANA CDT

Descripción

Gathered dry leaves on 2024-02-03 and stored in water.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Metopus es

Observ.

peptolab

Fecha

Mayo 15, 2024 a las 03:46 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Metopus species most consistent with Metopus es (Müller, 1776) Lauterborn, 1916 from the acidic freshwater kettle pond Chatfield's Hole. Culture 2.5 months old, fed with boiled wheat seed. Imaged in Nomarski DIC on Olympus BH2S using SPlan 100 1.25 oil immersion with oiled condenser and Splanapo 40 0.95 objectives plus variable phone camera cropping on Samsung Galaxy S9+. The population has most features consistent with Metopus es except for the thick hyaline striated cortex with perpendicularly arranged rod-shaped extrusomes (or ? ectosymbionts). Such a thick hyaline cortex is not described for M. es but is a feature of M. fuscus and M. ovalis, but these species have markedly different characters from my population. The population here lacks the S-shaped body of M. es, however Bourland et describe loss of this feature in older cultures: " Specimens from older cultures usually broader, lack sigmoid shape, less twisted on long axis,more acuminate posteriorly" (1). Indeed, my culture was 2.5 months old when imaged and had been fed with boiled wheat seed.

The cells measure 140 um in average length. Cells hyaline, dark at anterior pole due to cytoplasmic granule aggregate. Shape usually elongate, slightly sigmoid,distinctly twisted anteriorly and often in posterior third. Specimens from older cultures usually broader, lack sigmoid shape, less twisted on long axis. Preoral dome slightly convex, usually over hangs left margin, less commonly overhangs right margin, inclined 45◦ to long axis, brim rounded. Body posterior to preoral dome ellipsoidal in cross-section, often flattened in posterior part. Macronucleus ovoid and extends only slightly into preoral dome; chromatin coarsely granular, scattered 2.5–5 m nucleoli; no localized perinuclear endobionts. Micronucleus spherical in depression in midportion of macronucleus. Cytopyge not visible. Contractile vacuole terminal, obconical, excretory pore not observed. Satellite vacuoles seen, ? food vacuoles or derived from channels depicted by Kreutz (2). Cortex flexible, appears thick and hyaline with a perpendicular regular row of rod-shaped subpellicular structures ? extrusomes vs symbionts. Prominent kinetal furrows with interkinetal cortical granules (mucocysts) ellipsoidal to globular, i.e., about 1.5 m-long in vivo, arranged in about eight ordinary interkinetal rows; colorless. Anterior pole granule aggregate comprised of densely packed 1.0–1.5 m dark brown spherical granules. Cytoplasmic endosymbionts rod-shaped, conspicuous in vivo under oil immersion. Food vacuoles up to 15 m in diameter. Ordinary somatic cilia about 10 m long in vivo, perizonal stripe cilia about 15 m in vivo, beat in metachronal waves; slightly elongated, i.e., about 13 m-long posterior cilia, inconspicuous in vivo, Swimming pace moderate; rotates on long axis.

  1. Redescription and molecular phylogeny of the type species for two main metopid genera, Metopus es (Müller, 1776) Lauterborn, 1916 and Brachonella contorta (Levander, 1894) Jankowski, 1964 (Metopida, Ciliophora), based on broad geographic sampling. William Bourland, Johana Rotterova and Ivan Čepička. European Journal of Protistology Volume 59, June 2017, Pages 133-154
  2. https://realmicrolife.com/metopus-es/

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Mayo 21, 2024 a las 11:57 TARDE CST

Descripción

The Brachionus tries to eat a diatom but failed.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Mayo 21, 2024 a las 08:57 TARDE CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Mayo 21, 2024 a las 08:09 TARDE CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

onotole

Fecha

Mayo 19, 2024 a las 11:07 TARDE +07

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

davidfbird

Fecha

Mayo 18, 2024 a las 10:52 MAÑANA EDT

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Mayo 20, 2024 a las 08:36 TARDE CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Mayo 20, 2024 a las 07:54 TARDE CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Mayo 20, 2024 a las 07:33 TARDE CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Hongos Quitridios (Filo Chytridiomycota)

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Marzo 19, 2024 a las 11:23 TARDE CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

duestin

Fecha

Marzo 23, 2024 a las 11:15 TARDE CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

daviswj

Fecha

Abril 22, 2013

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

axioi

Fecha

Mayo 14, 2024 a las 08:27 MAÑANA CDT

Descripción

From flower pot on patio.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

crseaquist

Fecha

Abril 13, 2023 a las 03:49 TARDE CDT

Descripción

Water sample (freshwater) was taken on 2023-04-09 using a turkey baster.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

peptolab

Fecha

Mayo 17, 2024 a las 05:25 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Stentor coeruleus Ehrenberg, 1830, showing a rare and unusual bicoloration which is likely environmentally produced from a sample of the riverside benthos of the freshwater portion of the estuarine river Peconic River. The sample was fed with boiled wheat seed. Imaged in Nomarski DIC (and brightfield at 40x and 100 x) on Olympus BH2S using Splan 4, Splan 10, SPlanapo 20 0.70, Splanapo 40 0.95, and SPlan 100 1.25 oil objectives plus variable phone camera cropping on Samsung Galaxy S9+.

The cells so far showed only swimming forms and measure from 520 up to 800 um in length; I have not seen them anchor and fully extend in the manner of S. coeruleus. This size range is rather small for Stentor coeruleus. The spiral of the oral pit appears dark at low magnification and red with higher magnification and stands out starkly from the turquois blue body. At high magnification, one can see mainly turquoise-colored pigmented pellicular granules with fewer smaller red granules between the somatic kineties but red granules are strikingly concentrated in the buccal spiral pit.

I first considered S. introversus Tartar 1958 based on the mentioned close resemblence to S. coeruleus in most characters- turquois blue color without symbiont algae, moniliform macronculeus, smaller size (1,2). My misdiagnosis was largely based on a paper by Kim et al 2020 (3) who redescribed a brackish population which they called S. introversus based largely on the presence of two colors of granules, turquoise blue (somatic) and red (3). However, this feature is not mentioned anywhere with regard to S. introversus. In fact Foissner et al describe S. introversus TARTAR 1958: "which is described in the USA and is identical in granulation and nuclear apparatus, is slightly smaller (up to 450 um), has a brown-yellow cytoplasm and everts its front end characteristically during contraction" (1). Perhaps more importantly, Kim et al 2020 (3) did not illustrate the main defining character of S. introversus in their population as defined by Tartar 1958 (4): the eversion of the buccal field, and that "border of recurved ectoplasm" which he calls "somewhat scalloped". Indeed, the buccal field of my population is that of garden variety S. coeruleus.

So, how to resolve these differential diagnostic discrepancies. Foissner and Wölfl 1994 included S. introversus in their review of the genus: "Stentor introversus Tartar, 1958. This species matches most characters of S.coeruleus. It is, however, smaller [450 um, up to 580 um, according to Jones (1974); weak character] and the entire zone of adoral membranelles cannot only contract, but also retract. We recognize this form as a distinct species because heteroplastic graft combinations between S.introversus and S.coeruleus did not survive (Tartar, 1958), and because Tartar was an expert on S.coeruleus making it unlikely that he was mistaken" (2). Kim et al found Stentor inversus in Korea, ostensibly the first report of the species since Tartar described it in 1958. "Stentor introversus Tartar, 1958 Diagnosis. Extended body size in vivo 500-600×200 250 μm and trumpet-shaped, contracted body size 250 305×200-250 μm in vivo (n=10) and pouch-shaped with retracted buccal field; cytoplasm colorless; 2 kinds of cortical granules densely arranged in between somatic kineties, larger granules turquoise and 0.4-0.5 μm in diameter, smaller granules reddish and 0.2-0.3 μm in diameter; 250 adoral membranelles; 60-73 somatic kineties; 16-20 buccal kineties including 1 peristomial kinety; moniliform macronucleus with 9-14 nodules. Distribution. U.S.A. and Korea. Remarks. Stentor introversus was not reported since the original description by Tartar (1958) from USA. It differs from the most similar species, S. coeruleus (Pallas, 1766) Ehrenberg, 1831, in the extended body size (500-600 μm vs. 1-2 mm), buccal field retracted when contracted (present vs. absent), and the number of types of cortical granules (2 vs. 1) (Foissner et al., 1992; Foissner and Wölfl, 1994) (3).

In evaluating my diagnosis of this population as S. introversus, Bruce Taylor made me aware of some interesting research on S. coeruleus by Tartar 1972 (5), who Foissner acknowledges as an " expert on Stentor coeruleus" (2). In Tartar's experiments, "after a few days in caffeine solution the dark blue-green ciliate Stentor coeruleus loses all visible pigmentation. The cells remain viable and transparent if the solution is then diluted. In time, however, a light pink color is regenerated in maintenance concentration of the drug. In caffeine-free medium the major dark green pigment is regenerated" (5). Tartar feels that the pink coloration was present all the while: "at first colorless, the animals acquired a light pink color, sometimes two or three days after bleaching or sometimes only three or four weeks later, depending on the strain. That this pigment was regenerated and not a new pigment developed under the influence of caffeine is indicated by the fact that at weaker bleaching concentrations of the drug the slower decoloration removed the green but left a pink color from the start, as if a native pink pigment had been unmasked by loss of the green one" (5).

The presence of two native pigments, pink-red and blue, in S. coeruleus is also supported by the work of Moller 1962 (6). Tartar 1972 (5) pointed out: "These two pigments, now demonstrable by separate regeneration of the pink, probably are those discovered by Moller 1962 using extraction procedures on S. coeruleus: a pink one he called stentorin-1 which was alcohol soluble, and a predominating blue-green pigment - stentorin-2, not extractable with alcohol" (5).

So my population is almost certainly an environmentally induced phenotype of Stentor coeruleus which, due to some unknown environmental stimulus, has developed a strikingly visible pink-red coloration of the oral spiral while retaining its usual predominant turquoise granulation elsewhere. The presence of two different colored granules in S. introversus sensu Kim et al 2020 is also explainable in this way. While my population of S. coeruleus is smaller, so far observed at 540-800 um, I have not yet observed sessile feeding forms which may well reach the 1-2 mm length reported for S. coeruleus.

  1. Foissner,W., Berger,H. and Kohmann,F. (1992) Taxonomische und ökologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems-Band II: Peritrichia, Heterotrichida, Odontostomatida. Informationsberichte des Bayer. Landesamtes für Wasserwirtschaft, May 1992, pp. 351-4
  2. Revision of the genus Stentor Oken (Protozoa, Ciliophora) and description of S.araucanus nov. spec. from South American lakes. W.Foissner and S.Wölfl. Journal of Plankton Research Vol.l6 no.3 pp.255-289. 1994
  3. Taxonomy of 16 indigenous ciliate species (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from South Korea. Ji Hye Kim, Atef Omar, Ji Hye Moon and Jae-Ho Jung. Journal of Species Research 9(4):427-442, 2020
  4. Tartar, V. (1958) Stentor introversus, n. sp. J. Protozool., 5, 93-95.
  5. Caffeine bleaching of Stentor coeruleus. Vance Tartar. Journal of Experimental Zoology Volume181, Issue 2 August 1972 pp 245-25.
  6. Moller, K. M. 1962 On the nature of stentorin. C. R. Lab. Carsberg, 32: 471-498.

Fotos / Sonidos

Fecha

Mayo 16, 2024 a las 09:42 TARDE MSK

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

vilseskog

Fecha

Abril 8, 2024 a las 08:43 TARDE EDT

Descripción

freshwater, plankton net watersample

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

pffoster

Fecha

Abril 24, 2024 a las 11:54 MAÑANA CST

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

paul_dennehy

Fecha

Abril 26, 2024 a las 07:02 TARDE EDT

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

davidfbird

Fecha

Mayo 6, 2024 a las 11:39 MAÑANA EDT

Descripción

From a 7m plankton tow. About 180 microns wide.

Other Animals

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Animales (Reino Animalia)

Observ.

garrett_r

Fecha

Marzo 13, 2023 a las 10:34 MAÑANA PDT

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

davidfbird

Fecha

Mayo 6, 2024 a las 01:34 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Second observation of S. niagarae, this time to show the presence of chitin fibrils, just like its close relative in the Stephanodiscaceae, Cyclotella (or Stephanocyclus). The second shot shows a full fibril. It is twice as long as the cell is wide. I can't find literature reports of fibrils on this genus, but maybe the whole family has them.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

abelkinser

Fecha

Febrero 2024

Descripción

These red "spores" were found all over a small moss growing on vertical sandstone. Can't do better than life. Maybe a lichen? I don't believe it's part of the moss. Any help is appreciated.

Other Animals

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Animales (Reino Animalia)

Observ.

kenk

Fecha

Octubre 2, 2023 a las 06:30 TARDE PDT

Descripción

Appears to be a larval something. Marine specimen

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

strangway

Fecha

Octubre 5, 2023 a las 08:00 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Cordingley Lake Beach.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

onotole

Fecha

Mayo 10, 2024 a las 08:20 TARDE +07

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

kildor

Fecha

Mayo 4, 2024 a las 02:12 TARDE +07

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Bacterias (Reino Bacteria)

Observ.

crseaquist

Fecha

Julio 28, 2023 a las 11:03 MAÑANA CDT

Descripción

Sample taken from Stock Tank, 2023-07-27.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

davidfbird

Fecha

Mayo 6, 2024 a las 11:16 MAÑANA EDT

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Ciliados (Filo Ciliophora)

Observ.

axioi

Fecha

Abril 21, 2024 a las 09:48 TARDE CDT

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

onotole

Fecha

Abril 28, 2024 a las 06:12 TARDE +07

Descripción

Pollen grains.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Libélulas Y Caballitos del Diablo (Orden Odonata)

Observ.

gtguille

Fecha

Agosto 6, 2023 a las 06:48 MAÑANA EST

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

someplant

Fecha

Abril 7, 2023 a las 09:20 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Magnification of photos: 100×, 100×, 100×, 200×, 200×, 200×, 400×, 400×, 400×, 400×, 600×, 600×, 600×
Habitat: water and organic matter floating, in a salt marsh. Salinity unknown, but probably brackish.
Photo taken with a Celestron PentaView Digital Microscope. According to their website, the FOV (i.e. the diagonal width) at 100× is 600 µm.

Fotos / Sonidos

Fecha

Julio 23, 2022 a las 04:00 MAÑANA MSK

Descripción

Размеры клеток 0,7-1,0 мкм

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Rabditóforos (Subfilo Rhabditophora)

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Mayo 3, 2023 a las 05:18 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Mag. 400x
3 specimens imaged at different focal lengths. I'm inferring a relationship among them; a maturation process seems likely. Plant? Protozoan? Insect? Is this a stalked egg, similar to that of a Lacewing, but much smaller? (...the aftermath of a microbial wine tasting party? :o)

  • A water sample was taken on 4/26/2023, from the shore of a Pine Swamp impoundment, using a 10µ dip net to enrich for microbes. Air temp. 58°F.

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Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

duvey

Fecha

Mayo 26, 2023 a las 05:03 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Microscopic

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

peptolab

Fecha

Abril 12, 2024 a las 11:24 MAÑANA EDT

Descripción

CHILODONELLA UNCINATA Ehrenberg (Kahl 1931) from the freshwater pond Kellis Pond which appeared after feeding the culture with boiled wheat seed. Imaged in Nomarski DIC on Olympus BH2 using SPlan 100 1.25 oil objective plus variable phone camera cropping on Samsung Galaxy S9+.

The cells measure 40 um in length, a bit smaller than Kahl's described range of 50-90 um. Foissner (1981) givers a range of 28-36 um, Song (1997) around 30 um, and Song et al. (2009) a range of 30-50 um. There are 4 left and 4 right kineties as well as two circumoral kineties and a single preoral kinety. The postoral region is devoid of cilia. The anterior dorsal brush row of bristles is visualized when the indivdual is viewed from the dorsal surface. The macronucleus is ellipsoid and situated posteriorly along with an ovoid micronucleus posterior to the macronucleus. The cyrtos forms a cornucopia-like basket and consists of 10 rods surrounding the circular cytostome. The two contractile vacuoles are diagonally opposed in the anterior right and posterior left quadrants of the cell.

CHILODONELLA UNCINATA Ehrenberg (Kahl, 1931) Length 50-90 um; body dorsoventrally flattened (cr., c. cucullulus); about 11 ventral ciliary rows; dorsally a transverse row of about 7 dorsal cilia or bristles (see Fig. 35B); cytostome round, cytopharyngeal trichites form a cornucopia; macronucleus oval; a single small micronucleus; the 2 contractile vacuoles are located in the anterior right quadrant and the posterior left quadrant, respectively. Chilodonella dentata Fouque is generally held to be a synonym of C. uncinata. Food Bacteria, diatoms, small green algae. Occurrence and ecology Cosmopolitan in distribution, found throughout the year in still and flowing waters (e.g., trickling filters, oxidation ponds). Often numerous in bacterial layers, e.g., at the surface of polluted waters.

CILIATED PROTOZOA. An illustrated guide to the species used as biological indicators in freshwater biology. HARTMUT BICK. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION GENEVA 1972 pp 60-1.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Bacterias (Reino Bacteria)

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Diciembre 7, 2022 a las 11:12 TARDE EST

Descripción

Mag. 400x
I have no idea what this is, but it's gorgeous. It looks like a 100µ bag if ~3-4µ Cheerios! In the 1st image, only in the 1st panel of the 2nd row does the honey comb structure behind the "Cheerios" become readily apparent. Interesting!

  • A water sample was taken on 11/08/2022, from the shore of Lantern Hill Pond, using a 10µ dip net to enrich for microbes. Air temp. 55°F. (The sample had been in room temp. storage until re-assayed on 12/7/2022)

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Fecha

Febrero 23, 2023 a las 08:03 TARDE EST

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

paolavargas

Fecha

Febrero 26, 2023 a las 07:14 TARDE CET

Descripción

Cankers

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

amayakan

Fecha

Marzo 12, 2022

Descripción

Video: https://youtu.be/KxtPh2ydwXE

Photos are snapshots of the same individual in the video.

Size: see scale bars (photos no. 2 and 3)

Site of collection: Pavilion, Takamori Ryokuchi (a freshwater habitat), Sendai, Japan

Date of collection: March 12th 2022

Weather: Sunny

Water temp.: 7.8°C

pH 6.3

Date of observation: March 21st 2022 (the collected sample in a plastic container was left near a window out of direct sunlight at room temperature until observation)

Bright field observation using a Wraymer microscope (model BX-3500TL, Osaka, Japan) equipped with a Floyd-2 HDMI ethernet digital camera (Wraymer, Osaka, Japan). The accuracy of the scale bar was confirmed by using a stage micrometer glass slide (1 div. = 10 µm; Wraymer, Osaka, Japan) at each magnification.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

sarah211

Fecha

Abril 10, 2022 a las 11:10 TARDE EDT

Descripción

From a large vernal pool. 1000x magnification

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

dgborin

Fecha

Mayo 1, 2024 a las 08:34 TARDE CEST

Descripción

Sample taken on 2024-04-25

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

phaulactis

Fecha

Septiembre 21, 2022 a las 12:00 TARDE CEST

Descripción

In large pond

Microscopic

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Octubre 7, 2022 a las 09:57 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Mag. 400x
Saw only one in several slide fields. Complex shape. Egg? Body part from larger organism?

  • A water sample was taken on 10/07/2022, from the shore of an impoundment in the Pine Swamp cluster of waterbodies, using a 10µ dip net to enrich for microbes. Air temp. 70°F. (This water sample was taken in the midst of a bloom of Dinobryon... very few green life forms were observed in this overwhelmingly Dinobryon- filled sample.)

Fotos / Sonidos

Fecha

Noviembre 2021

Descripción

Philodina laying an egg. For some reason the Dexiotricha were very interested in the proceedings.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Abril 22, 2024 a las 12:58 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Mag. 200x (1), 100x (2,3)

  • A pond-side water/periphyton sample was taken 04/22/2024 using a small sample bottled attached to an extension pole. Air temp 61F.

Rotifer housed in a fecal pellet tube of its own making. The rounded, kidney-shaped corona is consistent with genus Ptygura (no deep notch) and, specifically, with Plingfactory's Michael Plewka's amazing images of Ptygura pilula seen here.https://www.plingfactory.de/Science/Atlas/KennkartenTiere/Rotifers/01RotEng/source/Ptygura-pilula.html

for a video (correct link now recorded!): https://youtu.be/ET-uzDrAcwo

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Hongos Bonete (Género Mycena)

Observ.

lohityt

Fecha

Junio 19, 2023

Lugar

Mala (Google, OSM)

Descripción

Golden-backed Frog
Mushroom grown on frog body

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

amayakan

Fecha

Agosto 27, 2022

Descripción

Video: https://youtu.be/zzauMpQJzZM

Cell size: see scale bars (photos no. 1–no. 8)

Site of collection: Katsurashima Ryokuchi south pond (a freshwater habitat), Sendai, Japan

Date of collection: Aug. 27th 2022

Weather: Cloudy

Water temp.: 25.4°C

pH 6.8

Date of observation: August 27th 2022

Bright field observation using a Wraymer microscope (model BX-3500TL, Osaka, Japan) equipped with a Floyd-2 HDMI ethernet digital camera (Wraymer, Osaka, Japan). The accuracy of the scale bar was confirmed by using a stage micrometer glass slide (1 div. = 10 µm; Wraymer, Osaka, Japan) at each magnification.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Abril 22, 2024 a las 11:21 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Mag. 400x

  • A pond-side water/periphyton sample was taken 04/22/2024 using a small sample bottled attached to an extension pole. Air temp 61F.

Colonial, stalked choanoflagellate on a strand of Eunotia diatoms (in apical view). The feeding cone/collar and central flagellum can be seen on many of the cells in the still photographs and videos.
videos:

Ref: https://cfb.unh.edu/phycokey/Choices/Amoebae_Flagellates_Ciliates/Choanoflagellates/CODOSIGA/Codosiga_Image_page.html#pic01

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

peptolab

Fecha

Enero 25, 2022 a las 04:00 TARDE EST

Descripción

Genus Cyclomonas Fromentel, 1874.

Eukaryota incertae sedis . Dinoflagellate Cyclomonas from the freshwater portion of Peconic River. Cyclomonas is a free-living heterotrophic flagellate. It was thought to belong to ORDER CERCOZOIDA (=SARCOMONADIDA) but currently has uncertain affiliation within protists, based on Adl et al. (2005 and 2012).

It measures only 14 um and has a twisted irregular flattened cell with a globular bubbled appearance. There is a single forward facing flagellum less than one body length. It swims rather than glides through the water. Cyclomonas distortum is monospecific.

Imaged in Nomarski DIC using Olympus BH2S under SPlan 40x objective plus maximum phone cropping on Samsung Galaxy S9+.

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Gupi Africano (Poecilia reticulata)

Observ.

denis_shilov

Fecha

Marzo 22, 2023 a las 02:07 TARDE +05

Descripción

В реку Малая Кушва АО «НТМК Евраз»производится сброс горячих отработанных технических вод. Вода даже зимой вблизи в отстойнике и ниже его имеет температуру +21 градус, что позволяет прекрасно жить аквариумной рыбе гуппии.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

claudio53866

Fecha

Julio 1, 2023 a las 10:47 TARDE CEST

Descripción

  • water + moss sample

https://youtu.be/0bT8hKXSWco

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

amayakan

Fecha

Julio 4, 2021

Descripción

Video: https://youtu.be/4FLjVWS3Txg

Photos are snapshots of the same individuals in the video

The cell measures 31 µm x 10 µm

Site of collection: Pavilion, Takamori Ryokuchi (a freshwater habitat), Sendai, Japan

Date of collection: July 4th 2021

Weather: Cloudy

Water temp.: 21.6°C

pH 6.4-6.6

Date of observation: July 10th 2021 (the collected sample in a plastic container was left near a window out of direct sunlight at room temperature until observation)

Bright field observation using a Wraymer microscope (model BX-3500TL, Osaka, Japan) equipped with a Floyd-2 HDMI ethernet digital camera (Wraymer, Osaka, Japan).

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Rotíferos (Filo Rotifera)

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Octubre 14, 2023 a las 02:40 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Mag. 400x

  • A pond-side water sample (retentate) was taken using a 10µ dip net to enrich for microorganisms. Air temp 58F.

Rotifer egg? What really struck me about this form were the "upside-down" column structures (reminiscent of a Frank Lloyd Wright design https://www.pbs.org/kenburns/frank-lloyd-wright/sc-johnson-hq-ext-int) that support the outer wall. Very cool! Recognize this?

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Diatomeas (Clase Bacillariophyceae)

Observ.

noellarson

Fecha

Mayo 4, 2018 a las 04:08 TARDE MST

Descripción

water temp time of sample
45.1 Degrees F
7.3 degrees C
I think this little cap releases spores and the end of the diatom chain

Fotos / Sonidos

Qué

Vida (Vida)

Observ.

mnold1

Fecha

Julio 16, 2022 a las 10:11 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Mag. 400x
No idea. Egg pod? A cyst of some kind? Gorgeous, like a 19th century sepia toned illustration!

  • After gently pushing aside the cover of lily pads, a pond side water sample was taken on 07/16/2022 using a 10µ dip net to enrich for microbes. Air temp. 79°F.

Fotos / Sonidos

Observ.

peptolab

Fecha

Abril 27, 2024 a las 10:50 TARDE EDT

Descripción

Spirostomum ambiguum Ehrenberg, 1834. from the superficial river edge benthos of the freshwater segment of the estuarine Peconic River. Imaged in Nomarsdki DIC on Olympus BH2S using Splanapo 20 0.70 and SPlanapo 40 0.95 objectives plus variable phone camera cropping on Samsung Galaxy S9+. The cell measures 960 um in length. The peristome is 2/3 the length of the body with the cytostome at the posterior 2/3 location. There is a large terminal contractive vacuole with a long collecting canal reaching almost the anterior end of the cell. The macronucleus is moniliform forming a chain of connected elongate spindle shaped macronuclear nodules beginning at the anterior 40% of the cell length and extending almost to the posterior end.

"Spirostomum ambiguum Ehrenberg, 1834. [syn: Trichoda ambiguum Müller, 1786; S. ambiguum var. major Roux, 1901] 900 m several mm long. Length: width ratio about 9-17. 15-25 kineties on each side; heterogeneous, numerous (4-5) CG rows per stripe. Peristome always longer than 1/2 of the body length, often reaching 2/3. CV much shorter than body length, rarely exceeding 1/10. The color depends on cytoplasmic granules. Moniliform MAC with 12-50 (avg. 15-25) nodules not exceeding 35 45 m in length when stained by Feulgen reaction. Numerous (up to 100) MICs 1-2 m long. Mono phyletic. Only found in freshwater. Reported in central and northern Europe, England, Russia, central Africa, USA, Jamaica, India and Japan. It sometimes harbors prokaryotic symbionts in the MAC. Spirostomum ambiguum is a well-defined, easily recognizable morphospecies whose monophyly is also strongly supported by molecular sequences" (1).

"Differential diagnosis
1) Size in vivo 1-000-4000 x 48-100 um, mostly 1200-2000 um. Visible with the naked eye as a white thread. Very flexible and contractile, shortens to approximately 390-430 x200-220 um. Contracted cells cigar-shaped.
2) Shape slender to moderately broad worm-shaped, more or less parallel-sided, 10-17 times longer than wide. Front end rounded, rear end truncated. Slightly flattened laterally. Ventral side in area of ​​the mouth entrance slightly bulging.
3) Macronucleus moniliform or rosary-shaped, consists of 10-50, mostly 15-20 ellipsoids, about 18-53 x 12-24 um large nodes that form a long band that approaches the dorsal side. The number of nodes correlates positively with the age of the cell (REPAK & ISQUITH L974).
4) Contractile vacuole at the posterior end, with a long collecting duct extending forward along the dorsal side which sometimes shows ampullary extensions.
5) Close under the pellicle there are many spherical, spherical, yellowish granules arranged in elongated bands of 4-5 rows each which give the cell a yellowish to brownish color.
6) About 70-90 slightly spiraling rows of cilia, consisting of basal bodies arranged in pairs are constructed, but only the front one has a cilium.t
When the cells contract (startle reaction), the rows of eyelashes spiral around the body.
7) The adoral membrane zone extends from the anterior end to the posterior third (about 65-70 % of the body length) and turns to the right at the lower end. Parallel to the adoral membranelle zone a non-ciliated oral groove, which is bordered on the right by an undulating membrane.
8} Movement hatching, worm-like crawling and writhing. Fluidity with longitudinal rotation axis, with the front end describing a cone-shaped body of revolution. In the plankton falling floating with inclined longitudinal axis" (2).

"Spirostomum ambiguum is easy to recognize because of its size and shape, but the differentiation with S. minus causes considerable difficulties. There are many shape variations which occur, size and shape are not reliable distinguishing features. Usually S. minus is significantly slimmer and almost never reaches a length of 1 mm, while S. ambiguum is more compact, stockier and over 1 m long. Only the length of the adoral membrane zone in relation for body length (S. ambiguum: 65-70 %; S. minus: 35-50%) remains reasonably reliable distinguishing feature, but here too the differences do not seem to be too pronounced. Furthermore, the ciliates S. semivirescens have a similar size and shape (up to 2 mm, very slender, adoral membrane zone up to 50 % of body length, green through symbiontic algae) and Homalozoon vermiculare (up to 1.5 mm, 5-21 contractile vacuoles along the dorsal side, mouth small and only at the front end) as well as microturbellaria and nematodes. The characteristics 1,3 and 7 are particularly important for identification" (2).

  1. Focusing on Genera to Improve Species Identification: Revised Systematics of the Ciliate Spirostomum Vittorio Boscaroa,1, Daniela Carducci, Giovanna Barbieri, Marcus V.X. Senra, Ilaria Andreoli, Fabrizio Erra, Giulio Petroni, Franco Verni, and Sergei I. Fokin. Protist, Vol. 165, 527–541, August 2014
  2. FOISSNER W., BERGER H. & KOHMANN F. (1992): Taxonomische und ökologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems - Band II: Peritrichia, Heterotrichida, Odontostomatida. – Informationsberichte des Bayer. Landesamtes für Wasserwirtschaft, 5/92: pp 317-25.