01 de enero de 2020

On the global leaderboards for December 2019?

December in the more northerly parts of the Northern Hemisphere is usually not a great month for nature observations. However, starting on the 4th of December I was lucky enough to spend almost three weeks in Southwestern Florida -- Sanibel, which is a barrier island on the Gulf Coast, not far from Fort Myers.

Of course I love to try to find new-to-me or new-to-Sanibel species of shelled marine mollusk, and I like to look at all the other marine organisms that wash up on the beaches. Sanibel beaches are fortunately not "groomed"! I also love to try to see new-to-me species of plants, and even new plant diseases. I was able to get to a nature preserve on a very hot day, and get some pics of some interesting flying insects.

We had a lot of rain storms towards the end of our visit, which was not good for trying to examine the more tiny shells, or more flying insects. However I found I was already on the global leaderboards for the month of December 2019, both for the total number of observations made, and for number of different species observed.

And when I came back to NYC, late on 23rd December, I knew if we got some reasonable weather (as was predicted) I could probably easily rack up a couple hundred more species here in the Big Apple, winter or not.

So that's what I did, and I finished the month still well positioned on December's leaderboards, with 3,027 observations of 587 species. I also was able to have fun with two iNat mini-meetups, one on Sanibel and one here in NYC, thanks to @jayhorn and @steven-cyclist!

Happy New Year to everyone! And happy iNatting!

Ingresado el 01 de enero de 2020 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 18 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

08 de agosto de 2019

Confusing snails in the genus Cepaea: Grove Snails versus White-lipped Snails

There are two very pretty and very similar-looking species of European land snails in the genus Cepaea. These two species are both introduced in some parts of the US, and they are native in most of Western Europe: the Grove Snail Cepaea nemoralis (almost always has a black out-turned lip in adults) and the White-lipped Snail Cepaea hortensis (almost always has a white out-turned lip in adults). Both species live in colonies. They both have a fairly large globose shell, which can be yellow, red, or any pale or mixed shade of those colors. The shell can be plain in color or banded. When it is banded, it can have from one to five dark bands. Those bands can be narrow, or they can be so wide that two or more bands merge together.

One important thing to know is that you *cannot* put a species ID on a live one of these snails, or an empty shell, unless it *adult*. The ID of juveniles needs to be left at the genus level. Even dissection cannot separate the juveniles into species.

How can you tell if the snail is an adult? In snails of this genus (and many other land-snail genera), once the snail reaches adulthood/sexual maturity, the shell stops growing larger, and instead it grows thicker. The lip of the shell becomes greatly strengthened, strongly reinforced, and also it is slightly flared out. In other words, the lip of the shell is out-turned to a degree.

With a lot of experience, you can tell an adult from a juvenile quite easily, but until then, before trying to ID a live Cepaea to the species level out in the field, check to see if the lip is mature. If you press gently on the side of the lip and it is still soft and flexible, then the individual is a juvenile. If there is no sign of thickening and no out-turned appearance to the lip, the snail is a juvenile, and you will have to leave the ID as "Cepaea".

EVEN MORE IMPORTANT: A live juvenile or subadult Cepaea snail that is active will *always* appear to have a white lip on the shell. However, often what you are seeing is the *live mantle tissue* which is wrapped over the edge of the shell, actively laying down more shell material. That is how the shell increases in size. And any brand-new shell material will also appear whitish, or even transparent.

If an individual snail is starting to become sexually mature, you may see that the thicker lip of the adult is partially formed. You have to look closely then, because even if the adult is going to have a dark lip on the shell (the Grove Snail), the thickening may start out pale, and the dark pigment may be laid down a bit later, when the thickened lip is almost finished.

So, although it is true that the White-lipped Snail almost always has a white lip to the shell (in adults), and the Grove Snail almost always has a dark lip to the shell (in adults), it is not that simple.

As a result, here on iNaturalist we currently have numerous observations that have been misidentified, and many well-meaning people have subsequently "agreed" with those IDs, causing them to become Research Grade.

Research Grade observations are fed to the AI, our Computer Vision tool. Large numbers of misidentifications cause the AI to learn the species incorrectly, and then it offers incorrect suggestions. And that helps perpetuate the mistakes!

If anyone who reads this post would like to help me sort out some of this confusion, please drop me a line. Although many (not all) of the IDs of the black-lipped Grove Snail are correct, there are still dozens of observations of "white-lipped"Cepaea which will need to have the ID adjusted to the genus level, and adding a comment with "Please see" and a link to this post.


Ingresado el 08 de agosto de 2019 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 8 observaciones | 5 comentarios | Deja un comentario

10 de julio de 2019

Insect and mite plant pests in NYC

NOTE: this is currently an early draft and therefore incomplete!

I decided to start putting together a journal post about the plant-pest species of arthropod that I have observed in NYC. These are mostly insects, but also mites. It will take me a long time to compile the list, as there is no project that covers this. Also the list could potentially become so long as to be unmanageable!

The list will *NOT* include all the various leafminer species I have found (leaf miner flies, moths, beetles, etc) -- those I have already listed in a separate journal post. However, on the rare occasions when I have managed to photograph the adult of a leafminer insect, that will be included here. The list will also *NOT* include the numerous gall-making creatures, as I intend to make a separate post about them.

Rose Slug Sawfly
Bristly Rose Sawfly
?Curled Rose Sawfly

Carolina Sphinx Moth
Cabbage White
Fall Webworm Moth
Diamondback Moth
Hawaiian Beet Webworm Moth
Squashvine Borer Moth
Cabbage Webworm Moth

Elm Leaf Beetle
Groundsel Tree Leaf Beetle
Red Lily Leaf Beetle
Japanese Beetle
Oriental Beetle
Spotted Cucumber Beetle
Green June Beetle
Goldenrod Leafminer Beetle
Grapevine Beetle

Chrysanthemum Lace Bug
Oak Lace Bug
Azalea Lace Bug

...Plant Bugs:
Norvellina chenopodii

Box Sucker
Hackberry Nipplegall Psyllid
Hackberry Star Gall Psyllid

Oleander aphid
Mealy Plum Aphid
Cowpea Aphid
Potato Aphid
Black Bean Aphid

...White Flies

...Scale Insects:
Cottony Camellia Scale
Cottony Maple Leaf Scale
Ceroplastes floridensis
Euonymus Scale
Yew Scale


Boxwood Mite
Pear Leaf Blister Mite
other spider mites

Ingresado el 10 de julio de 2019 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

26 de junio de 2019

Leafminer species in NYC

To quote the Wikipedia article on leaf miners, "A leaf miner is any one of a large number of species of insects in which the larval stage lives in, and eats, the leaf tissue of plants."

If you are not yet familiar with leafmines, but are curious to see some, start looking carefully for white squiggly lines or whitish blotches on leaves of all various kinds of plants, both wild and cultivated.

On this page I am compiling a list of the leaf miner species that I have observed in NYC. The species identifications are almost entirely thanks to the generosity and brilliant ID-ing work of leafminer expert Charley Eiseman, @ceiseman.

Just a reminder here that leaf mining is an ecological niche, not a taxon. All leaf mines are created by insect larvae, but as Charley points out: "In North America [leafminers] include at least 40 families of moths, 10 families of flies, 6 families of beetles, and 2 families of sawflies." It's also worth saying here that despite the common name, sawflies are not flies; instead they are related to wasps.

Most of the leafminers on this list are larvae of small flies, but so far I have observed several that are moths (microlepidoptera), one which is a chrysomelid beetle, and one which is a sawfly. The taxa other than flies I have put in boldface.

Orache Leafminer (on Lambs Quarters) -- Chrysoesthis sexgutella -- moth
..no common name (on Asteraceae) -- Liriomyza eupatorii -- fly
Cabbage Leafminer (on Garlic Mustard) -- Liriomyza brassicae -- fly
..no common name (on Asteraceae) -- Liriomyza eupatorii -- fly
Mallow Leafminer (on mallow family) -- Calycomyza malvae -- fly
Burdock Leaf Miner (on burdocks) -- Liriomyza arctii -- fly
Columbine Leafminer (on garden columbines) -- Phytomyza aquilegivora -- fly
..no common name (on White Clover) -- Liriomyza fricki -- fly
..no common name (on Elm leaves) -- Agromyza aristata -- fly
..no common name (on White Snakeroot) -- Calycomyza eupatoriphaga -- fly
Elm Leafminer (on elms) -- Fenusa ulmi -- sawfly
..no common name (on elms) -- Agromyza aristata -- fly
..no common name (on Seaside Goldenrod) -- Nemorimyza posticata -- fly
..no common name (on Asteraceae) -- Calycomyza promissa -- fly
Goldenrod Leaf Miner (on Seaside Goldenrod) -- Microrhopala vittata -- beetle
Morning-glory Leafminer (on Convolulaceae) -- Bedellia somnulentella -- moth
..no common name (on Chenopodiaceae) -- Chrysoesthia lingulacella -- moth
Milkweed Leafminer (on Common Milkweed) -- Liriomyza asclepiadis -- fly
Leaf Miner on Tulip Tree (on Tulip Tree) -- Phyllocnistis liriodendronella -- moth
..no common name (on goldenrods) -- Calycomyza solidaginis -- fly
..no common name (on garden columbines) -- Phytomyza aquilegiana -- fly
..no common name (on Amaranthus blitum) -- Pegomya wygodzinskyi -- fly
Poison Ivy Leaf-miner (on Poison Ivy) -- Cameraria guttifinitella -- moth
Grass Sheathminer (on a weed grass) -- Cerodontha dorsalis -- fly
..no common name (on buttercup) -- Phytomyza ranunculi -- fly
..no common name (on Bull Thistle ) -- Scrobipalpa acuminatella -- moth
??Brassica Leaf Miner (on radish) -- Scaptomyza flava -- fly
Locust Digitate Leafminer Moth (on Black Locust) -- Parectopa robinella) -- moth
Chrysanthemum Leafminer (on Asteraceae) -- Phytomyza syngenesiae -- fly
..no common name (on Eastern Cottonwood) -- Stigmella populetorum -- moth
??no common name (on a Rumex species) -- Pegomya bicolor -- fly
..no common name (on Groundsel Tree) -- Bucculatrix ivella -- moth
..no common name (on elm) -- Stigmella apicialbella -- moth
Daylily Leafminer (on daylily) -- Ophiomyia kwansonis -- fly
.. no common name (on White Snakeroot) -- Liriomyza eupatoriella -- fly
..no common name (on Penstemon) -- Phytomyza penstemonis -- fly
..no common name (on legume) -- Micrurapteryx occulta -- moth
..no common name (on Asteraceae) -- Ophiomyia parda -- fly
..no common name (on Mock Orange) -- Liriomyza philadelphivora -- fly
..no common name (on a goldenrod) -- Phytomyza solidaginophaga -- fly
..no common name (on Asteraceae) -- Ophiomyia carolinensis -- fly
Hellebore Leaf Miner (on hellebore) -- Phytomyza hellebori -- fly
..no common name (on magnolia) -- Phyllocnistis magnoliella -- moth

On June 28th 2019, there were a total of 41 species on this list, but I am adding more
species to this list as time goes by.

Update, July 10th 21019. I added:

..no common name (on Magnolia) -- Phyllocnistis magnoliella -- moth
..no common name (on Columbine) -- Phytomyza aquilegiana -- fly

Update July 18th 2019, I found:

..no common name (on American Holly) -- Phytomyza glabricola -- a fly

Ingresado el 26 de junio de 2019 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 6 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Fungal pathogens on plants in NYC

This year the spring and early summer in New York City has been very wet -- we have had a great deal of rain, and this seems to have favored the growth of fungi.

Here is a list of taxa of fungal plant pathogen species which I *believe* I have observed in NYC. This is very much a work in progress, so please forgive errors of various kinds, as well as general mistakes and incompleteness. I hope to add to this post and refine the text over time.

NOTE: Apologies to any real plant pathologists reading this: I am not doing any microscope work or culturing, so all of my IDs are just *guesses* based only on the appearance and symptoms of the affected leaves. Because of this, some (or perhaps many) of my IDs will turn out to be unreliable or just plain incorrect. As a result, in some cases the icon images for the species will have to be changed.

Some of these fungi were observed living in/on wild species of plant, and some were observed on cultivated plants. So far I have searched parks, gardens, street trees, and a small Urban Farm.

This first version is gleaned from the list of species currently in the project New York Mycological Society -- Fungi of NYC.

Mulberry leaf spot (on mulberries) -- Cercospora moricola
Pear Rust (on Callery Pear) -- Gymnosporangium sabinae
Black Rot (on Boston Ivy) -- Phyllosticta amplicida
Black Tar Spot (on maples) -- Rhytisma acerinum
Cercospora Leaf Spot on Hydrangea (on hydrangeas) -- Cercospora hydrangea
Red Dock Spot (on docks) -- Ramularia rubella
Quince Rust (on Serviceberries and others) -- Gymnosporangium clavipes
Hollyhock Rust (on garden hollyhocks) -- Puccinia malvacearum
Black Spot (on garden roses) -- Diplocarpon rosae
. . no common name (on Virginia Creeper) -- Phyllosticta quinquifolia
Spindletree Powdery Mildew (on Japanese Euonymus) -- Erysiphe euonymicola
. . no common name (on Wild Vetch and on Board Beans) -- Didymella fabae
. . no common name (on Common Mugwort) -- Puccinia tanaceti
Black Spot of Elm (on Elms) -- Stegophora ulmea
. . no common name (on Eastern Cottonwood) -- Drepanopezia brunnea
Lettuce Anthracnose (on Prickly Lettuce) -- Microdochium panattonianum
Dogwood Anthracnose (on Dogwood) -- Discula destructiva
Sycamore Anthracnose (on Plane trees) -- Apiognomonia veneta
. . no common name (on Heavenly Bamboo) -- Pseudocercospora nandinae
Cherry Leaf-Blight (on wild cherry) -- Blumeriella jaapii
Juniper-apple Rust (on Eastern Juniper) -- Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae
Bullseye Leaf Spot (on Japanese Maples) -- Phyllosticta minima
Powdery Mildew on Clover (on Red Clover) -- Erysiphe polygoni
Violet Rust (on wild violets Viola sororia) -- Puccinia violae
Oak Anthracnose (on white oak group) -- Apiognomonia errabunda
Cercospora Leaf Spot of Swiss Chard, Beets, and Spinach (on Beets) -- Cercospora beticola
Cercospora leaf Spot on Clover (on red clover) -- Cercospora zebrina
Hellebore Leaf Spot (on garden hellebore) -- Coniothyrium hellebori
Hypericum Rust (on garden St. John's Wort) -- Melampsora hypercorum
Ash Anthracnose Fungus (on Ash street trees) -- Gleosporium aridum
Peony Red Spot (on garden peony) -- Graphiopsis chlorocephala
. . no common name (on gardened Trilium) -- Urocystis trillii
Coryneum Blight (on Purple-leaved Plum) -- Wilsonomyces carpophilus

These species are only the ones where I think I could come up with an ID. I have many more about which am currently clueless, and which will probably have to remain so indefinitely for lack of lab work.

Ingresado el 26 de junio de 2019 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 7 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

02 de junio de 2019

Plant pests, pathogens, and galls -- why are they overlooked?

Over the last two years I have become particularly interested in observing plant pests, plant pathogens, and plant galls here in North America. Very often, finding them requires scanning plant life quite carefully as you progress slowly through a landscape.

In general we seem to have the habit of visually ignoring or avoiding looking at damage to plants. There is a sense that this kind of imperfection is "ugly" and unpleasant. There does not seem to be an awareness that damage to plants very often represents the survival work of other organisms, and that those organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, arachnids, insects, mollusks) can fairly often be identified to the species level by simply paying attention to the visual characteristics of the damage.

There is a parallel here. I have been interested in seashells since I was a toddler, but for many years I assumed that all the broken shells I saw on the beach were shells which had been whole when the animal died. I assumed that each shell had become broken in the process of being washed up, perhaps by being knocked against rocks, or dashed together with other shells in the waves.

But then I read Geerat Vermeij's 1993 book, "A Natural History of Shells". On page 94 he recounts how, on a beach in Guam in 1970, thanks to a comment from Lucius Eldredge, it dawned on Vermeij that damaged, repaired and broken shells are very often the result of predation. This insight struck him (and, in turn, me) with considerable force.

The damaged plants I see are like the broken shells, not to be avoided with disgust, but to be carefully "read" for the information they contain about the web of life.

Ingresado el 02 de junio de 2019 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 27 observaciones | 16 comentarios | Deja un comentario

20 de mayo de 2019

Two gall species on Boxelder Maple this spring

This spring I was excited to find two species of gall on a group of Boxelder Maple saplings on the edge of the Freshwater Wetland in Randalls Island, Manhattan, NYC.

On the Boxelder Maple there, the most common gall (extremely common this spring!) is the "Box Elder Pouch Gall Mite" (caused by mites). The mites create galls that look like little nodules on the upper leaf surface (see images one and two).

However, there were also some galls (not nearly as many) which were a lot larger, and looked like a soft pale money bag (but they were quite hard). These galls occurred on the rib of a leaflet (see the third image).

Here are my two other observations of other examples of that larger gall:



And here is a gall on BugGuide that looks like those big ones:


It turns out that the big galls are indeed caused by "Box Elder Gall Midge", Contarinia negundinis, which is in the Family Cecidomyiidae - Gall Midges and Wood Midges.

So I thought that was cool, simultaneously finding some galls caused by mites, and some galls caused by midges on the same species of plant.

Thank you to some input from Charley Eiseman.


.................................INTERESTING UPDATE FROM AUGUST 2019:

In August I noticed some strange little pink granular clusters on some of the young leaves which also had the Box Eldger Pouch Gall Mite galls:


Then @megachile suggested that perhaps the pink clusters could be Maple Erineum Mite (Aceria calceris). He said that "The Amrine catalog says that Aceria calaceris, which causes red erineum on Acer glabrum, was reported on boxelder too. Amrine notes that he thinks it's probably a mistake but that is a possibility."

Ingresado el 20 de mayo de 2019 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 3 observaciones | 4 comentarios | Deja un comentario

17 de abril de 2019

Getting ready for the City Nature Challenge?

Anyone reading this who lives in, or visits, NYC, and who would like some more detailed pointers for what to do, and how to do it, during the days of the worldwide City Nature Challenge (CNC), please feel free to contact me.

There are, conveniently, two weekdays and two weekend days we can use for CNC, so there is time available when anyone can make observations, no matter how busy they are.

1. Photograph anything and everything that is alive, except for pets, zoo animals, indoor plants and people.

2. Anything that was, or is, planted by people, is OK to record but please mark it "captive" or "not wild".

3. In order to rack up good numbers, please *do* photograph multiple different examples of the common species, as many as you can. Every pigeon counts. Every dandelion counts. 100 pigeons and 100 dandelions makes 200 observations!

4. Street trees are fine to record. But with most trees, so we can ID them OK, please try to take shots of the overall shape, the bark, a twig to show if the buds are opposite or alternate, and a leaf or flower if available. But if you can't do that, just do the best you can. Sometimes one image is enough to ID a tree if it is a distinctive species, like a Gingko.

5. You can photograph things when you are in a taxi or a bus or a private car -- see the four images here, all shot from a moving taxi. You can photograph things out of the window where you live or work. You can find plenty of things to photograph as you walk down a street, including small weeds in cracks in the sidewalk, in tree pits and planters. If you have the app open, it only takes a second to take a photo and then hit "Save".

6. Perhaps most important of all -- it does *not* matter if you don't know what something is. You can mark it "plant" or "bird", or simply *Save* it with no ID at all! That is fine. It still counts as an observation, and the chances are that someone else will ID it.

Good luck to everyone, and have fun!


Ingresado el 17 de abril de 2019 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 4 observaciones | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

06 de marzo de 2019

Helping a local NYC park become iNaturalist-ready

Carl Schurz Park is about a mile from where I live. It's on the East River. The park includes a very nice wide promenade/esplanade right along the river's edge, because that part of the FDR highway is covered over. Also, Gracie Mansion is inside the park -- that's the historic house where the mayor of NYC lives.

The views from the esplanade in the park are really pretty. Depending where you are standing, and which way you are facing, across a large expanse of water you can see the north end of Roosevelt Island, parts of Queens, Randall's Island (which I love), and Mill Rock. The large watery expanse is where, to the west, the East River becomes the Harlem River (a narrow inlet which joins up with the Hudson River). To the east, the water is called Hell Gate, and that water can be turbulent. Hell Gate eventually joins up with Long Island Sound. It's all part of the complicated geography of the estuary of the Hudson. The water is all saltwater, estuarine habitat.

Carl Schurz Park (CSP) itself is gorgeous, very pretty indeed. It is extremely well planted with mature trees, bushes and flowers, has very interesting and varied topography, and is superbly maintained. Carl Schurz Park Conservancy (CSPC) has been improving the park for many years now, and it has become an internationally known showcase, thanks to the efforts of a large band of dedicated volunteer gardeners.

Recently I was contacted by CSPC and I have been helping them get a little more completely set up with iNaturalist. There is now a Carl Schurz Park Biodiversity Project:


based on Carl Schurz Park Open Space:


In NYC, every park is a de facto nature preserve, no matter how well-gardened it may be. I would encourage anyone who either lives in this area, or visits it, to come check out this lovely park and all the wild critters that live there. We are keen to get more iNat observations. Please join the Carl Schurz Park Biodiversity Project. Thank you.

I have already led one CSP simple short nature walk for the volunteer gardeners (some wild ferns, mosses and lichens), and during the warmer weather I hope to lead a few more (one on spontaneous plants, one on insects and other arthropods, and maybe one on plant pathogens.) You are welcome to join us in our attempts to lean more about what lives in, and visits, this beautiful park.

Ingresado el 06 de marzo de 2019 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 16 observaciones | 8 comentarios | Deja un comentario

05 de febrero de 2019

List of "mystery" leafminers worth investigating -- mostly in NYC

Charley Eiseman told me I had observed some interesting mysteries in terms of the leafminers that I photographed during 2018. Some of these may be new species.

I decided to create a journal post listing the mysteries, so that anyone who might want to investigate them can easily find my mystery observations, and then hopefully be able to find more of the leafminers while they are in the larval stage this year.

Please feel free to message me if you want more info about where exactly any of these were found. Also, bear in mind that by the date I photographed the mine, the larva may already have turned into a pupa, and the adult insect may have already have hatched out, and flown away.

Charley also explained to me that if I find any of these mystery leafmines where the mine is still occupied by the larva, and if I don't want to try to raise them myself, which is likely to be the case (even though it is quite easy to do), in that case I could send the leaves to him, so he can raise the larvae.


* A mystery leafminer in Rudbeckia. This one is relatively common in the Freshwater Wetland Wildflower Meadow on Randall's Island.
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14578192 -- July 21st 2018
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15882221 -- Aug 25th 2018
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15878574 -- two on one plant, Aug 25th 2018
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15919795 -- Aug 26th, 2018

* A mystery leafminer in Common Hackberry saplings, Celtis occidentalis Aug 26th 2018, Randall's Island.

* A mystery leafminer in a baby Cirsium plant, Sept 8th 2018, Randall's Island.

* A mystery leaf miner in Pennsylvania Everlasting, Gamochaeta pensylvanica, photographed by me on August 19th 2018. Unfortunately the host plant seems to me to be rather rare in NYC.

* A mystery leafminer in Populus Sept 12th 2018, Upper East Side.

* A mystery leafminer (might be the mallow leaf miner, Calycomyza malvae) in a cultivated plant known as Violettas, Anoda cristata in a community garden, Oct 28th 2018

* A mystery leafminer in leaves on saplings of Rose of Sharon, Hibiscus syriacus, Sept 1st 2018. Outside my building, Upper East Side. I need to get view of the underside of the leaf. This miner is likely to be Calycomyza malvae, but it needs confirmation.

A mystery leafminer on Chenopodium ?murale in Encinitas, San Diego County, California: Sept 28th 2018.

A mystery leafminer on Toyon in Encinitas, San Diego County, California: Sept 27th 2018.
Another of the same thing on Toyon in Encinitas, San Diego County, California: Sept 27th 2018.

In a leaf of Coastal Live Oak, Oct 1, 2018 -- not sure this one is a mystery.

Ingresado el 05 de febrero de 2019 por susanhewitt susanhewitt | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario